Large-scale analysis of the GRAS gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana
- 1.6k Downloads
GRAS proteins belong to a plant-specific transcription factor family. Currently, 33 GRAS members including a putative expressed pseudogene have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome. With a reverse genetic approach, we have constructed a “phenome-ready unimutant collection” of the GRAS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of this collection, we focused on loss-of-function mutations in 23 novel GRAS members. Under standard conditions, homozygous mutants have no obvious morphological phenotypes compared with those of wild-type plants. Expression analysis of GRAS genes using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), microarray data mining, and promoter::GUS reporter fusions revealed their tissue-specific expression patterns. Our analysis of protein–protein interaction and subcellular localization of individual GRAS members indicated their roles as transcription regulators. In our yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay, we confirmed the protein–protein interaction between SHORT-ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR). Furthermore, we identified a new SHR-interacting protein, SCARECROW-LIKE23 (SCL23), which is the most closely related to SCR. Our large-scale analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation on the Arabidopsis GRAS members, and also our phenome-ready unimutant collection will be a useful resource to better understand individual GRAS proteins that play diverse roles in plant growth and development.
KeywordsArabidopsis GRAS family Phenome-ready unimutant collection SCARECROW-LIKE23 Yeast two-hybrid assay
The authors wish to thank ABRC, NASC, and RIKEN for providing the seeds and cDNA clones. We also thank Yrjo Helariutta for critical reading of the manuscript. We are also grateful to In A Kim and Ji Hye Yoon for technical assistance and plant maintenance. This work was supported by grants from Plant Signaling Network Research Center (R11-2003-008-03004-0) and KRF (C00469) to MML; KOSEF (R01-2006-000-11026-0), KRF (C00131), Crop Functional Genomics Center (CG1123), and BioGreen 21 to JL.
- Gong W, Shen YP, Ma LG, Pan Y, Du YL, Wang DH, Yang JY, Hu LD, Liu XF, Dong CX, Ma L, Chen YH, Yang XY, Gao Y, Zhu D, Tan X, Mu JY, Zhang DB, Liu YL, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Li Y, Wang XP, Gu HY, Qu LJ, Bai S-N, Lu YT, Li JY, Zhao JD, Zuo J, Huang H, Deng XW, Zhu YX (2004) Genome-wide ORFeome cloning and analysis of Arabidopsis transcription factor genes. Plant Physiol 135:773–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Okushima Y, Overvoorde PJ, Arima K, Alonso JM, Chan A, Chang C, Ecker JR, Hughes B, Lui A, Nguyen D, Onodera C, Quach H, Smith A, Yu G, Theologis A (2005) Functional genomic analysis of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR gene family members in Arabidopsis thaliana: unique and overlapping functions of ARF7 and ARF19. Plant Cell 17:444–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Riechmann JL, Heard J, Martin G, Reuber L, Jiang C, Keddie J, Adam L, Pineda O, Ratcliffe OJ, Samaha RR, Creelman R, Pilgrim M, Broun P, Zhang JZ, Ghandehari D, Sherman BK, Yu G (2000) Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes. Science 290:2105–2110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Swofford DL (2002) PAUP* phylogenetic analysis USING parsimony (*and Other Methods), version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar