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Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 64, Issue 3, pp 305–318 | Cite as

Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the pathways of biosynthesis and supply of methyl units in response to powdery mildew attack and abiotic stresses in wheat

  • Nazmul H. Bhuiyan
  • Weiping Liu
  • Guosheng Liu
  • Gopalan Selvaraj
  • Yangdou Wei
  • John King
Article

Abstract

From a library of 3,000 expression sequence tags (ESTs), derived from the epidermis of a diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) inoculated with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), we cloned 23 cDNAs representing 12 genes that are involved in the pathways of biosynthesis and supply of methyl units. We studied the transcription of these genes to investigate how the methyl units are generated and regulated in response to Bgt infection and abiotic stresses in wheat. Expression of 5, 10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and S-adenosylhomocystein hydrolase transcripts were highly induced at an early stage of infection. This induction was specific to the epidermis and linked to host cell wall apposition (CWA) formation, suggesting that the pathways for generation of methyl units are transcriptionally activated for the host defense response. Levels of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase mRNA, but not phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase and nicotianamine synthase mRNA, were up-regulated after infection and showed similar expression patterns to genes involved in the pathways of generation of methyl units, revealing possible routes of methyl transfer towards polyamine, lignin and ethylene biosynthesis rather than glycine betaine and nicotianamine in response to Bgt attack. After imposing various abiotic stresses, genes involved in the pathways of generation and supply of methyl units were also up-regulated differentially, suggesting that the generation of sufficient methyl units at an early stage might be crucial to the mitigation of multiple stresses.

Keywords

C1 metabolism Gene expression pattern Stress resistance Transmethylation 

Abbreviations

THFD/C

5, 10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/5, 10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase

MTHFR

5, 10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase

MetSyn

Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase

SAMS

S-adenosylmethionine synthetase

SAHH

S-adenosylhomocystein hydrolase

SHMT

Serine hydroxy methyltransferase

SAMDC

S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase

COMT

Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase

ACCO

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase

PEAMT

Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase

NAS

Nicotianamine synthase

SAM

S-adenosyl-l-methionine

PGT

Primary germ tube

AGT

Appressorial germ tube

PR

Pathogenesis related

DAB

3, 3′-Diaminobenzidine

CWA

Cell wall apposition

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada in the form of a Discovery Grant to JK. We thank R. Hirji for technical assistance, and the DNA technology unit of NRC-PBI Saskatoon for sequencing and oligonucleotide synthesis.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nazmul H. Bhuiyan
    • 1
  • Weiping Liu
    • 1
  • Guosheng Liu
    • 1
  • Gopalan Selvaraj
    • 2
  • Yangdou Wei
    • 1
  • John King
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Plant Biotechnology InstituteNational Research Council of CanadaSaskatoonCanada

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