Essential amino acids of starch synthase IIa differentiate amylopectin structure and starch quality between japonica and indica rice varieties
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Four amino acids were variable between the ‘active’ indica-type and ‘inactive’ japonica-type soluble starch synthase Ha (SSIIa) of rice plants; Glu-88 and Gly-604 in SSIIa of indica-cultivars IR36 and Kasalath were replaced by Asp-88 and Ser-604, respectively, in both japonica cultivars Nipponbare and Kinmaze SSIIa, whereas Val-737 and Leu-781 in indica SSIIa were replaced by Met-737 in cv. Nipponbare and Phe-781 in cv. Kinmaze SSIIa, respectively. The SSIIa gene fragments shuffling experiments revealed that Val-737 and Leu-781 are essential not only for the optimal SSIIa activity, but also for the capacity to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. Surprisingly, however, a combination of Phe-781 and Gly-604 could restore about 44% of the SSIIa activity provided that Val-737 was conserved. The introduction of the ‘active’ indica-type SSIIa gene enabled the japonica-type cv. Kinmaze to synthesize indica-type amylopectin. The starch in the transformed japonica rice plants exhibited gelatinization-resistant properties that are characteristic of indica-rice starch. Transformed lines expressing different levels of the IR36 SSIIa protein produced a variety of starches with amylopectin chain-length distribution patterns that correlated well with their onset temperatures of gelatinization. The present study confirmed that the SSIIa activity determines the type of amylopectin structure of rice starch to be either the typical indica-type or japonica-type, by playing a specific role in the synthesis of the long B1 chains by elongating short A and B1 chains, notwithstanding the presence of functional two additional SSII genes, a single SSI gene, two SSIII genes, and two SSIV genes in rice plants.
Key wordsamylopectin indica rice japonica rice starch starch synthase transgenic rice
degree of polymerization
differential scanning calorimetry
granule-bound starch synthase
souluble starch synthase
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