Prolactinomas in pregnancy: considerations before conception and during pregnancy
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Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors and pathological hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, women harboring prolactinomas frequently present infertility due to the gonadal axis impairment. The gold-standard treatment is dopamine agonist (DA) which can reverse hyperprolactinemia and hypogonadism, and promote tumor shrinkage in the majority of cases. Therefore, reports of pregnancy in such cohort become more common. In this scenario, bromocriptine is still the DA of choice due to its shorter half-life and larger experience as compared to cabergoline. In DA resistant cases, transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is indicated. However, potential risks of DA-induced pregnancies include fetal exposition and symptomatic tumor growth. Dopamine agonist should be discontinued as soon as pregnancy is confirmed in microprolactinomas and intrasellar macroprolactinomas (MAC). Concerning expansive/invasive MAC, DA maintenance should be considered. Periodically clinical evaluation should be performed during pregnancy, being sellar imaging indicated if tumor symptomatic growth is suspected. In such cases, if DA treatment fails, neurosurgery is indicated.
KeywordsInfertility Prolactinoma Pregnancy Bromocriptine Cabergoline
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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