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Pituitary

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 82–92 | Cite as

Immunotherapy and hypophysitis: clinical presentation, treatment, and biologic insights

  • Alexander FajeEmail author
Article

Abstract

Introduction

Advances in immunotherapy have transformed the management of metastatic melanoma and generated encouraging results in the treatment of other malignancies. Autoimmune side effects from these agents, termed immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), are diverse and can include multiple endocrinopathies. Ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IH) is a recently recognized endocrine IRAE.

Methods

This review summarizes published data and experience from our center on the incidence, presentation and management, and proposed mechanisms for immunotherapy-related hypophysitis, with a focus on patients treated with ipilimumab (Ipi).

Conclusion

Hypophysitis occurs in a significant minority of patients treated with Ipi, in contrast to the relative rarity of idiopathic autoimmune hypophysitis or hypophysitis after treatment with other immunotherapies. Recently published cohorts have described the clinical presentation and management of IH and longitudinal outcomes in these patients. Additional studies with Ipi and other emerging agents have helped identify potential risk factors for the development of immunotherapy-related hypophysitis and possible underlying mechanisms for IH. Clarification of the mechanism(s) for IH may enhance our understanding of idiopathic autoimmune hypophysitis and could have potential therapeutic applications.

Keywords

Ipilimumab Hypophysitis Hypopituitarism CTLA-4 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BUL 457, Neuroendocrine UnitMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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