Clinical profile and long term follow up of children and adolescents with prolactinomas
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We report clinical presentation, response to medical treatment, and long-term follow-up of 39 children and adolescents with prolactinoma (F:M; 30:9) (30 macro and 9 microadenoma) diagnosed at the age of 9–20 years. Mean duration of follow up was 56 months. All patients were treated with bromocriptine (BC) at doses ranging from 2.5 to 20 mg/day or by cabergoline at doses ranging from 0.5 to 2 mg/week orally. Two patients received external conventional radiotherapy after surgery. In patients with macroprolactinoma (F:M; 21:9), headache and/or visual defects were the first symptoms. All females had primary or secondary amenorrhea. Growth arrest was not observed in any patient and pubertal development was appropriate for their age. Spontaneous or provocative galactorrhea was observed in 23 patients (all females) and none of male patient had gynecomastia. Mean serum prolactin (PRL) concentration at the time of diagnosis was 322.50 ng/ml in patients with microadenoma, 522.38 ng/ml in patients with macroadenoma and 2,294.86 ng/ml in patients with macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. In 25 patients, BC normalized PRL levels and caused variable, but significant, tumor shrinkage. Cabergoline normalized PRL concentrations in 14 patients. Pregnancy occurred in 6 patients while on treatment. Pregnancies were uncomplicated, and the patients delivered normal newborns at term. Impairment of other pituitary hormone secretion was documented at the time of diagnosis in only one patient. Postoperatively six patients had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In conclusion, the medical treatment with dopaminergic compounds is effective and safe in patients with prolactinoma with onset in childhood, allowing preservation of the anterior pituitary function.
KeywordsProlactinoma Cabergoline Bromocryptine Radiotherapy Amenorrhea
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