, Volume 8, Issue 3–4, pp 245–249

High Risk of Hypogonadism After Traumatic Brain Injury: Clinical Implications


DOI: 10.1007/s11102-005-3463-4

Cite this article as:
Agha, A. & Thompson, C.J. Pituitary (2005) 8: 245. doi:10.1007/s11102-005-3463-4


Several recent studies have convincingly documented a close association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pituitary dysfunction. Post-traumatic hypogonadism is very common in the acute post-TBI phase, though most cases recover within six to twelve months following trauma. The functional significance of early hypogonadism, which may reflect adaptation to acute illness, is not known. Hypogonadism persists, however, in 10–17% of long-term survivors. Sex steroid deficiency has implications beyond psychosexual function and fertility for survivors of TBI. Muscle weakness may impair functional recovery from trauma and osteoporosis may be exacerbated by immobility secondary to trauma. Identification and appropriate and timely management of post-traumatic hypogonadism is important in order to optimise patient recovery from head trauma, improve quality of life and avoid the long-term adverse consequences of untreated sex steroid deficiency.

Key Words

traumatic brain injury hypogonadism hypopituitarism 



traumatic brain injury


luteinizing hormone


follicle-stimulating hormone


gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Academic Division of Endocrinology and DiabetesBeaumont Hospital and RCSI Medical SchoolDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyBeaumont HospitalDublin 9Ireland

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