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Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 351–377 | Cite as

Biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome: influence of selected foodstuffs, containing bioactive components

  • Harry Robberecht
  • Tess De Bruyne
  • Nina Hermans
Article

Abstract

The influence of various non-nutritive bioactive foodstuffs and food components on the biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in humans is critically reviewed. Tea, coffee, cocoa, soy, olive oil, fruit and nuts are most of the time found to be effective in improving lipid profiles, CRP and adiponectin. Spices (garlic, curcumin and cinnamon), carotenoids and the phytosterol/-stanols are frequently related to lower risk of metabolic syndrome and improved biomarkers. Since food is a complex matrix and the heterogeneity of studied population and served diets are not always well-defined, this could explain some contradictory results found in literature. Other factors jeopardizing definite conclusions are mentioned.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome Biomarkers Foodstuffs Bioactive components 

Abbreviations

ALA

α-Linoleic acid

ALAT

Alanine aminotransferase

BMI

Body mass index

CRP

C-reactive protein

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EGCG

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

GABA

Gamma aminobutyric acid

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HDL-c

HDL-cholesterol

HOMA-IR

Homeostasis assessment-insulin resistance index

hs-CRP

High sensitivity-CRP

IL

Interleukin

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthetase

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LDL-c

LDL-cholesterol

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MetS

Metabolic syndrome

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acids

NO

Nitric oxide

oxLDL

Oxidized LDL

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

RBP-4

Retinol-binding protein 4

sICAM

Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule

TAG

Triacylglyceride

TC

Total cholesterol

TG

Triglyceride

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

VLDL

Very-low density lipoprotein

VLDL-c

VLDL-cholesterol

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Robberecht
    • 1
  • Tess De Bruyne
    • 1
  • Nina Hermans
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of General and Functional Foods, NatuRA (Natural Products and Food-Research and Analysis)University of AntwerpWilrijkBelgium

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