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Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 515–536 | Cite as

Rhodiola rosea L.: from golden root to green cell factories

  • Andrey S. Marchev
  • Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova
  • Zsuzsanna György
  • Iman Mirmazloum
  • Ina Y. Aneva
  • Milen I. Georgiev
Article

Abstract

Rhodiola rosea L. is a worldwide popular plant with adaptogenic activities that have been and currently are exploited in the traditional medicine of many countries, as well as, examined in a number of clinical trials. More than 140 chemical structures have been identified which belong to several natural product classes, including phenylpropanoid glycosides, phenylethanoids, flavonoids and essential oils, and are mainly stored in the rhizomes and the roots of the plant. A number of mechanisms contribute to the adaptogenic activities of R. rosea preparations and its phytochemical constituents. Among them, the intrinsic inducible mammalian stress responses and their effector proteins, such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), are the most prominent. Due to its popular medicinal use, which has led to depletion of its natural habitats, R. rosea is now considered as endangered in most parts of the world. Conservation, cultivation and micropropagation are all implemented as potential preservation strategies. A number of in vitro systems of R. rosea are being developed as sources of pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. These are greatly facilitated by advances in elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways and the enzymes, which catalyse the production of these secondary metabolites in the plant. In addition, biotechnological approaches show promise towards achieving sustainable production of R. rosea secondary metabolites.

Keywords

Roseroot Medicinal use Clinical trials In vitro systems Secondary metabolites 

Abbreviations

2.4-D

2.4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

AEs

Adverse events

BAP

6-Benzylaminopurine

BAX

Bcl-2-associated X protein

Bcl-2

B-cell lymphoma-2

CA

Cinnamyl alcohol

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

DW

Dry weight

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

GA3

Gibberellic acid

GC–MS

Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy

GMP

Good manufacturing practices

HIF1

Hypoxia-inducible factors 1

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

Hsp70

Heat shock protein 70

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

IBA

Indole-3-butyric acid

Kin

Kinetin

MeJa

Methyl jasmonate

MS

Murashige and Skoog

NAA

Naphtaleneacetic acid

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

NQO1

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

Phe

l-Phenylalanine

THMP

Traditional herbal medicinal products

Tyr

l-Tyrosine

TyrDC

Tyrosine decarboxylase

UDP

UDP-glucose:tyrosol glucosyltransferase

Zea

Zeatin

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrey S. Marchev
    • 1
    • 2
  • Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova
    • 3
    • 4
  • Zsuzsanna György
    • 5
  • Iman Mirmazloum
    • 5
  • Ina Y. Aneva
    • 6
  • Milen I. Georgiev
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Applied Biotechnologies, The Stephan Angeloff Institute of MicrobiologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesPlovdivBulgaria
  2. 2.Center of Plant System Biology and BiotechnologyPlovdivBulgaria
  3. 3.Division of Cancer Research, Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, School of MedicineUniversity of DundeeDundeeUK
  4. 4.Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology and Molecular SciencesJohns Hopkins University, School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingCorvinus University of BudapestBudapestHungary
  6. 6.Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem ResearchBulgarian Academy of ScienceSofiaBulgaria

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