Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 799–811 | Cite as

Metabolic engineering of fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): assembling tools to develop nutritionally desirable sesame seed oil

  • Rupam Kumar Bhunia
  • Ranjeet Kaur
  • Mrinal K. Maiti
Article

Abstract

Vegetable oils are an essential component of human diet, in terms of their health beneficial roles. Despite their importance, the fatty acid profile of most commonly used edible oil seed crop plants are imbalanced; this skewed ratio of fatty acids in the diet has been shown to be a major reason for the occurrence of cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Until recently, it was not possible to exert significant control over the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils derived from different plants. However, the advent of metabolic engineering, knowledge of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants have offered novel opportunities to tailor-made the composition of vegetable oils for their optimization in regard to food functionality and dietary requirements. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the ancient oilseed crop in Indian subcontinent but its seed oil is devoid of balanced proportion of ω-6:ω-3 fatty acids. A recent study by our group has shed new lights on metabolic engineering strategies for the purpose of nutritional improvement of sesame seed oil to divert the carbon flux from the production of linoleic acid (C18:2) to α-linolenic acid (C18:3). Apart from that, this review evaluates current understanding of regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic pathways in sesame and attempts to identify the major options of metabolic engineering to produce superior sesame seed oil.

Keywords

1,2-sn-diacylglycerol acyltransferase Fatty acid desaturase Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase Sesame seed oil Stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase 

Abbreviations

ACCase

Acetyl Co-A carboxylase

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CVD

Cardiovascular diseases

DAG

1,2-diacylglycerol

DGAT

1,2-sn-diacylglycerol acyltransferase

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FA

Fatty acid

FAD3

Fatty acid desaturase-3

FAD7

Fatty acid desaturase-7

FAE

Fatty acid elongase

FAS

Fatty acid synthase

FAT

Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase

G3P

Glycerol-3-phosphate

GPAT

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

HDL

High-density-lipoprotein

KAS

3-ketoacyl- ACP synthase

LDL

Low-density-lipoprotein

LEC

Leafy cotyledon

LPA

Lysophosphatidic acid

MAT

Malonyl-CoA-ACP-S-malonyl transferase

MGDG

Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

PA

Phosphatidic acid

PAP

Phosphatidic acid phosphatise

PC

Phosphatidyl choline

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

SAD

Stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

TFA

Trans fat

TAG

Triacylglycerol

WHO

World health organization

WRI1

Wrinkled 1

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rupam Kumar Bhunia
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ranjeet Kaur
    • 1
  • Mrinal K. Maiti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Advanced Laboratory for Plant Genetic Engineering (ALPGE) and Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC)Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)KharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology (IIT)KharagpurIndia
  3. 3.Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology (BBMB)Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA

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