Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 799–811 | Cite as

Metabolic engineering of fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): assembling tools to develop nutritionally desirable sesame seed oil

  • Rupam Kumar Bhunia
  • Ranjeet Kaur
  • Mrinal K. Maiti


Vegetable oils are an essential component of human diet, in terms of their health beneficial roles. Despite their importance, the fatty acid profile of most commonly used edible oil seed crop plants are imbalanced; this skewed ratio of fatty acids in the diet has been shown to be a major reason for the occurrence of cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Until recently, it was not possible to exert significant control over the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils derived from different plants. However, the advent of metabolic engineering, knowledge of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants have offered novel opportunities to tailor-made the composition of vegetable oils for their optimization in regard to food functionality and dietary requirements. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the ancient oilseed crop in Indian subcontinent but its seed oil is devoid of balanced proportion of ω-6:ω-3 fatty acids. A recent study by our group has shed new lights on metabolic engineering strategies for the purpose of nutritional improvement of sesame seed oil to divert the carbon flux from the production of linoleic acid (C18:2) to α-linolenic acid (C18:3). Apart from that, this review evaluates current understanding of regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic pathways in sesame and attempts to identify the major options of metabolic engineering to produce superior sesame seed oil.


1,2-sn-diacylglycerol acyltransferase Fatty acid desaturase Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase Sesame seed oil Stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase 



Acetyl Co-A carboxylase


Adenosine diphosphate


Adenosine triphosphate


Cardiovascular diseases




1,2-sn-diacylglycerol acyltransferase


Endoplasmic reticulum


Fatty acid


Fatty acid desaturase-3


Fatty acid desaturase-7


Fatty acid elongase


Fatty acid synthase


Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase




Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase




3-ketoacyl- ACP synthase




Leafy cotyledon


Lysophosphatidic acid


Malonyl-CoA-ACP-S-malonyl transferase




Monounsaturated fatty acid


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


Phosphatidic acid


Phosphatidic acid phosphatise


Phosphatidyl choline


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase


Saturated fatty acid


Trans fat




World health organization


Wrinkled 1


  1. Al-Shafeay AF, Ibrahim AS, Nesiem MR et al (2011) Establishment of regeneration and transformation system in Egyptian sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cv Sohag1. GM Crops 2:182–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreu V, Collados R, Testillano SP et al (2007) In situ molecular identification of the plastid ω-3 fatty acid desaturase FAD7 from soybean: evidence of thylakoid membrane localization. Plant Physiol 145:1336–1344CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrianov V, Borisjuk N, Pogrebnyak N et al (2010) Tobacco as a production platform for biofuel: overexpression of Arabidopsis DGAT and LEC2 genes increases accumulation and shifts the composition of lipids in green biomass. Plant Biotechnol J 8:277–287Google Scholar
  4. Ashri A (1989) Sesame. In: Robbelen G, Downey RK, Ashri A (eds) Oil crops of the world: their breeding and utilization. McGraw Hill Pub Comp, New York, pp 375–387Google Scholar
  5. Baud S, Lepiniec L (2010) Physiological and developmental regulation of seed oil production. Prog Lipid Res 49:235–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baud S, Mendoza MS, To A et al (2007) WRINKLED1 specifies the regulatory action of LEAFY COTYLEDON2 towards fatty acid metabolism during seed maturation in Arabidopsis. Plant J 50:825–838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baud S, Dubreucq B, Miquel M et al (2008) Storage reserve accumulation in Arabidopsis: metabolic and developmental control of seed filling. Arabidopsis Book. doi:10.1199/tab.0113
  8. Baud S, Wuilleme S, To A et al (2009) Role of WRINKLED1 in the transcriptional regulation of glycolytic and fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis. Plant J 60:933–947CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Belide S, Petrie JR, Shrestha P et al (2012) Modification of seed oil composition in Arabidopsis by artificial microRNA-mediated gene silencing. Front Plant Sci 3:168CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Benning C (2009) Mechanisms of lipid transport involved in organelle biogenesis in plant cells. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 25:71–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhattacharya S, Sinha S, Dey P et al (2012) Production of nutritionally desirable fatty acids in seed oil of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) by metabolic engineering. Phytochem Rev 11:197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhunia RK, Chakraborty A, Kaur R et al (2014) Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops. Plant Mol Biol 86:351–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhunia RK, Chakraborty A, Kaur R et al (2015a) Analysis of fatty acid and lignan composition of Indian germplasm of sesame in terms of their nutritional merits. J Am Oil Chem Soc 92:65–76Google Scholar
  14. Bhunia RK, Chakraborty A, Kaur R et al (2015b) Enhancement of α-linolenic acid content in transgenic tobacco seeds by ectopic over-expression of a modified plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (fad7) gene of Sesamum indicum (In review)Google Scholar
  15. Browse J, IMcCourt P, Somerville C (1986) A mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in C16:3 and C18:3, leaf lipids. Plant Physiol 81:859–864CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Buist PH (2004) Fatty acid desaturases: selecting the dehydrogenation channel. Nat Prod Rep 21:249–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Calder PC, Yaqoob P (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human health outcomes. BioFactors 35:266–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cernac A, Benning C (2004) WRINKLED1 encodes an AP2/EREB domain protein involved in the control of storage compound biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant J 40:575–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen Y, Zhou XR, Zhang ZJ (2015) Development of high oleic oil crop platform in flax through RNAi-mediated multiple FAD2 gene silencing. Plant Cell Rep 34:643–653Google Scholar
  20. Chowdhury S, Basu A, Kundu S (2014) A new high-frequency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technique for Sesamum indicum L. using de-embryonated cotyledon as explant. Protoplasma 251:1175–1190Google Scholar
  21. Clemente TE, Cahoon EB (2009) Soybean oil: genetic approaches for modification of functionality and total content. Plant Physol 151:1030–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Damude GH, Zhang H, Farrall L et al (2006) Identification of bifunctional Δ12/ω-3 fatty acid desaturases for improving the ratio of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids in microbes and plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103:9446–9451CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. De-Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N et al (1994) Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 343:1454–1459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dormann P, Voelker TA, Ohlrogge JB (1995) Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a novel thioesterase from Arabidopsis thaliana specific for long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys 316:612–618Google Scholar
  25. Dyer JM, Mullen RT (2001) Immunocytological localization of two plant fatty acid desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum. FEBS Lett 494:44–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. FAOSTAT Data (2013) Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Statistical database.
  27. Ferro M, Salvi D, Brugiere S et al (2003) Proteomics of the chloroplast envelope membranes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Cell Proteomics 2:325–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gunstone F, Harwood JL, Padley FB (1994) The lipid handbook, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 47–208Google Scholar
  29. Harwood JL (1996) Recent advances in the biosynthesis of plant fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1301:7–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Haslam RP, Ruiz-Lopez N, Eastmond P et al (2013) The modification of plant oil composition via metabolic engineering-better nutrition by design. Plant Biotechnol J 11:157–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hawkins DJ, Kridl JC (1998) Characterization of acyl ACP thioesterase of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) seed and high level of stearate production in transgenic canola. Plant J 13:743–752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hirata F, Fujita K, Ishikura Y et al (1996) Hypocholesterolemic effect of sesame lignan in humans. Atherosclerosis 122:135–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hirose N, Inoue T, Nishihara K et al (1991) Inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in rats by sesamin. J Lipid Res 32:629–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S (2001) Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia 44:805–817CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Jako C, Kumar A, Wei Y (2001) Seed-specific over-expression of an Arabidopsis cDNA encoding a diacylglycerol acyltransferase enhances seed oil content and seed weight. Plant Physol 126:861–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jha JK, Maiti MK, Bhattacharjee A (2006) Cloning and functional expression of an acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB type from Diploknema (Madhuca) butyracea seeds in Escherichia coli. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:645–655Google Scholar
  37. Jin UH, Lee JW, Chung YS (2001) Characterization and temporal expression of a ω-6 fatty acid desaturase cDNA from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds. Plant Sci 161:935–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones A, Davies HM, Voelker TA (1995) Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase and the evolutionary origin of plant acyl-ACP thioesterase. Plant Cell 7:359–371CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Kankaanpaa P, Sutas Y, Salminen S et al (1999) Dietary fatty acids and allergy. Ann Med 31:282–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ke T, Dong C, Mao H et al (2011) Analysis of expression sequence tags from a full-length-enriched cDNA library of developing sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum). BMC Plant Biol 11:180CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Knutzon DS, Thompson GA, Radke SE, Johnson WB, Knauf VC, Kridl JC (1992) Modification of Brassica seed oil by antisense expression of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci 89:2624–2628CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Kris-Etherton PM (2010) Trans-fats and coronary heart disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:29–30CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Kris-Etherton PM, Griegera JA, Ethertonb TD (2009) Dietary reference intakes for DHA, EPA. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81:99–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lardizabal K, Effertz R, Levering C (2008) Expression of Umbelopsis ramanniana DGAT2A in seed increases oil in soybean. Plant Physiol 148:89–96Google Scholar
  45. Li C, Miao H, Wei L (2014) Association mapping of seed oil and protein content in Sesamum indicum L. using SSR markers. PLoS ONE 9:e105757CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu Q, Singh SP, Green AG (2002) High-stearic and high-oleic cottonseed oils produced by hairpin RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing. Plant Physiol 129:1732–1743CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu HL, Yin ZJ, Xiao L et al (2012) Identification and evaluation of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase genes for hyperfortifying α-linolenic acid in transgenic rice seed. J Exp Bot 63:3279–3287CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Lu C, Napier JA, Clemente TE et al (2011) New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22:252–259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Martino-Catt SJ, Sachs ES (2008) Editor’s choice series: the next generation of biotech crops. Plant Physiol 147:3–5CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. McCartney AW, Dyer JM, Dhanoa PK et al (2004) Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases are inserted cotranslationally into the ER and contain different ER retrieval motifs at their carboxy termini. Plant J 37:156–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McConn M, Hugly S, Browse J et al (1994) A mutation at the fad8 locus of Arabidopsis identifies a second chloroplast ω-3 desaturase. Plant Physiol 106:1609–1614Google Scholar
  52. Mensink RP, Katan MB (1990) Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. N Engl J Med 323:439–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mondal N, Bhat VK, Srivastava SP (2010) Variation in fatty acid composition in Indian germplasm of sesame. J Am Oil Chem Soc 87:1263–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nakai M, Harada M, Nakahara K et al (2003) Novel antioxidative metabolites in rat liver with ingested sesamin. J Agric Food Chem 51:1666–1670CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Napier JA, Graham IA (2010) Tailoring plant lipid composition: designer oilseeds come of age. Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:330–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Napier JA, Haslam RP, Beaudoin F et al (2014) Understanding and manipulating plant lipid composition: metabolic engineering leads the way. Curr Opin Plant Biol 19:68–75CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Napier JA, Usher S, Haslam RP et al (2015) Transgenic plants as a sustainable, terrestrial source of fish oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. doi:10.1002/ejlt.201400452
  58. Ohlrogge J, Browse J (1995) Lipid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7:957–970CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Ohlrogge JB, Browse J, Somerville CR (1991) The genetics of plant lipids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1082:1–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Okuley J, Lightner J, Feldmann K et al (1994) Arabidopsis FAD2 gene encodes the enzyme that is essential for polyunsaturated lipid synthesis. Plant Cell 6:147–158Google Scholar
  61. Pathak N, Rai AK, Saha S (2014) Quantitative dissection of antioxidative bioactive components in cultivated and wild sesame germplasm reveals potentially exploitable wide genetic variability. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 17:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Petrie JR, Shrestha P, Belide S et al (2014) Metabolic engineering Camelina sativa with fish oil-like levels of DHA. PLoS ONE 9:e85061CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Poudyal H, Panchal KS, Diwan V et al (2011) Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: effects and emerging mechanisms of action. Prog Lipid Res 50:372–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Puttick D, Dauk M, Lozinsky S et al (2009) Overexpression of a FAD3 desaturase increases synthesis of a polymethyleneinterrupted dienoic fatty acid in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Lipids 44:753–757CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Qui X, Hong H, MacKenzie SL (2001) Identification of a Δ4 fatty acid desaturase from Thraustochytrium sp. involved in the synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brassica juncea. J Biol Chem 276:31561–31566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reynolds K, Taylor MC, Zhou X-R et al (2015) Metabolic engineering of medium-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaf lipids. Front Plant Sci. doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.00164 Google Scholar
  67. Ruiz-Lopez N, Usher S, Sayanova O et al (2015) Modifying the lipid content and composition of plant seeds: engineering the production of LC-PUFA. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:143–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Salunkhe DK, Chavan JK, Adsule RN et al (1992) World oilseeds: chemistry, technology and utilization. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 140–216Google Scholar
  69. Sayanova O, Smith MA, Lapinskas P et al (1997) Expression of a borage desaturase cDNA containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain results in the accumulation of high levels of delta 6-desaturated fatty acids in transgenic tobacco. Proc Natl Acad Sci 94:4211–4216CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Shanklin J, Cahoon EB (1998) Desaturation and related modifications of fatty acids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:611–641CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Shanklin J, Somerville C (1991) Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs. Proc Natl Acad Sci 88:2510–2514CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Shen B, Allen WB, Zheng P et al (2010) Expression of ZmLEC1 and ZmWRI1 increases seed oil production in maize. Plant Physiol 153:980–987Google Scholar
  73. Simopoulos AP (1991) Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 54:438–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Simopoulos AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56:365–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Simopoulos AP (2006) Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomed Pharmacother 60:502–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Simopoulos AP, Cleland LG (eds) (2003) Omega-6/Omega-3 essential fatty acid ratio: the scientific evidence. World Rev Nutr Diet, vol 92. Karger, Basel, pp I–XIIIGoogle Scholar
  77. Tapiero A, Ba NG, Couvreur P et al (2002) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and eicosanoids in human health and pathologies. Biomed Pharmacother 56:215–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Thompson GA, Scherer DE, Foxall-Van Aken S et al (1991) Primary structures of the precursor and mature forms of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from safflower embryos and requirement of ferredoxin for enzyme activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci 88:2578–2582CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Tzen JTC (2012) Integral proeins in plant oil bodies. ISRN Bot. doi:10.5402/2012/173954 Google Scholar
  80. Uzun B, Arslan C, Furat S (2008) Variation in fatty acid compositions, oil content and oil yield in germplasm collection of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). J Am Oil Chem Soc 85:1135–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. van Erp H, Kelly AA, Menard G (2014) Multigene engineering of triacylglycerol metabolism boosts seed oil content in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 165:30–36CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Vanhercke T, Tahchy AE, Liu Q et al (2014) Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves. Plant Biotechnol J 12:231–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Velasco L, Goffman FD, Becker HC (1998) Variability for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil in a germplasm collection of the genus Brassica. Genet Resour Crop Evol 45:371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Venegas-Calerón M, Beaudoin F, Garces R et al (2010a) The sunflower plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (HaFAD7) contains the signalling determinants required for targeting to, and retention in, the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in yeast but requires co-expressed ferredoxin for activity. Phytochemistry 71:1050–1058Google Scholar
  85. Venegas-Calerón M, Sayanova O, Napier JA (2010b) An alternative to fish oils: metabolic engineering of oil-seed crops to produce omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 49:108–119Google Scholar
  86. Voelker TA (1996) Plant acyl-ACP thioesterases: chain-length determining enzymes in plant fatty acid biosynthesis. In: Setlow JK (ed) Genetic engineering, vol 18. Plenum Press, New York, pp 111–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wallis JG, Browse J (2002) Mutants of Arabidopsis reveal many roles for membrane lipids. Prog Lipid Res 41:254–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang L, Yu S, Tong C et al (2014a) Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis. Genome Biol 15:R39Google Scholar
  89. Wang Z, Huang W, Chang J et al (2014b) Overexpression of SiDGAT1, a gene encoding acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Sesamum indicum L. increases oil content in transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 119:399–410Google Scholar
  90. Wang L, Yu J, Li D et al (2015) Sinbase: an integrated database to study genomics, genetics and comparative genomics in Sesamum indicum. Plant Cell Physiol 56:e2. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcu175 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Weselake RJ, Shah S, Tang M et al (2008) Metabolic control analysis is helpful for informed genetic manipulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to increase seed oil content. J Exp Bot 59:3543–3549CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Yadav NS, Wierzbicki A, Aegerter M et al (1993) Cloning of higher plant ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. Plant Physiol 103:467–476CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Yadav M, Chaudhary D, Sainger M et al (2010) Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 103:377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yukawa Y, Takaiwa F, Shoji K et al (1996) Structure and expression of two seed-specific CDNA clones encoding steroyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from sesame, Sesamum indicum L. Plant Cell Physiol 37:201–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Zampelas A, Paschos G, Rallidis L et al (2003) Linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid ratio. From clinical trials to inflammatory markers of coronary artery disease. World Rev Nutr Diet 92:92–108Google Scholar
  96. Zhang M, Fan J, Taylor DC et al (2009) DGAT1 and PDAT1 Acyltransferases have overlapping functions in Arabidopsis triacylglycerol biosynthesis and are essential for normal pollen and seed development. Plant Cell 21:3885–3901CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang H, Miao H, Wang L et al (2013) Genome sequencing of the important oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L. Genome Biol 14:401PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhang L, Yang XD, Yy Zhang (2014) Changes in oleic Acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. Int J Genomics. doi:10.1155/2014/921950 Google Scholar
  99. Zhou XR, Callahan DL, Shrestha P et al (2014) Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA. Front Plant Sci 5:419PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rupam Kumar Bhunia
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ranjeet Kaur
    • 1
  • Mrinal K. Maiti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Advanced Laboratory for Plant Genetic Engineering (ALPGE) and Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC)Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)KharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology (IIT)KharagpurIndia
  3. 3.Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology (BBMB)Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations