Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 59–65 | Cite as

Genetic engineering of carotenoid formation in tomato

  • Eugenia M. A. Enfissi
  • Paul D. Fraser
  • Peter M. Bramley
Original Paper

Abstract

The health promoting and aesthetic qualities of carotenoids have triggered considerable interest in enhancing their levels in crop plants, particularly in fruits and vegetables. One of the main crops of choice is the tomato, since it is readily available in both fresh and processed produce. There are several reports of the use of genetic engineering to increase levels of lycopene and \(\upbeta\)-carotene in ripe fruit. This review will highlight the strategies used to achieve these goals by comparing the use of different genes from plants and microorganisms as well as the choice of promoters.

Keywords

Carotenoids Isoprenoids Genetic modification Biosynthesis Metabolic regulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bird CR, Ray JA, Fletcher JD, Boniwell JM, Bird AS, Teulieres C, Blain I, Bramley PM, Schuch W (1991) Using antisense RNA to study gene function: inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis in transgenic tomatoes. Biotechnology 9:635–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bramley PM (2000) Is lycopene beneficial to human health? Phytochemistry 54:233–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bramley PM (2002) Regulation of carotenoid formation during tomato fruit ripening and development. J Exp Bot 53:2107–2113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bramley PM (2003a) The genetic enhancement of phytochemicals: the case of carotenoids. In: Johnson I, Williamson G (eds) Phytochemical functional foods, chapter 13. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, pp 253–279Google Scholar
  5. Bramley PM (2003b) Genetic engineering for carotenoids. In: Singh RP, Jaiwal PW (eds) Plant genetic engineering, vol 1. Sci Tech Publishing, Houston, pp 229–259Google Scholar
  6. Brown L, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, Giovannucci EL, Chasan-Taber L, Spiegelman D, Willet WC, Hankinson SE (1999) A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. Am J Clin Nutr 70:517–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chappell J (1995) Biochemistry and molecular biology of the isoprenoid pathway in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46:521–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davuluri GR, van Tuinen A, Fraser PD, Manfredonia A, Newman R, Burgess D, Brummell DA, King SR, Palys J, Uhlig J, Bramley PM, Pennings HMJ, Bowler C (2005) Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of DET1 enhances carotenoid and flavonoid content in tomatoes. Nat Biotech 23:890–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dharmapuri S, Rosati C, Pallara P, Aquilani R, Bouvier F, Camara B, Giuliano G (2002) Metabolic engineering of xanthophyll content in tomato fruits. FEBS Lett 519:30–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drake RG, Bird CR, Schuch W (1996) Enhancement of tomato phytoene synthase gene expression with a modified DNA. US Patent WO97/46690Google Scholar
  11. Enfissi EMA, Fraser PD, Lois LM, Boronat A, Schuch W, Bramley PM (2005) Metabolic engineering of the mevalonate and non-mevalonate isopentenyl diphosphate-forming pathways for the production of health-promoting isoprenoids. Plant Biotech J 3:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Estevez JM, Cantero A, Reindl A, Reichler S, Leon P (2001) 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, a limiting enzyme for plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. J Biol Chem 276:22901–22909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fraser PD, Bramley PM (2004) The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids. Prog Lipid Res 43:228–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fraser PD, Kiano JW, Truesdale MR, Schuch W, Bramley PM (1999) Phytoene synthase-2 enzyme activity in tomato does not contribute to carotenoid synthesis in ripening fruit. Plant Mol Biol 40:687–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fraser PD, Pinto ME, Holloway DE, Bramley PM (2000) Application of high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection to the metabolic profiling of plant isoprenoids. Plant J 24:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fraser PD, Römer S, Shipton CA, Mills PB, Kiano JW, Misawa N, Drake RG, Schuch W, Bramley PM (2002) Evaluation of transgenic tomato plants expressing an additional phytoene synthase in a fruit-specific manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:1092–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fraser PD, Truesdale MR, Bird CR, Schuch W, Bramley PM (1994) Carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit development (evidence for tissue-specific gene expression). Plant Physiol 105:405–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fray RG, Wallace A, Fraser PD, Valero D, Hedden P, Bramley PM, Grierson D (1995) Constitutive expression of a fruit phytoene synthase in transgenic tomatoes causes dwarfism by redirecting metabolites from the gibberellin pathway. Plant J 8:693–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, Willett W, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ (1999) Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res 59:1225–1230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Giliberto L, Perrotta G, Pallara P, Weller JL, Fraser PD, Bramley PM, Fiore A, Tavazza M, Giuliano G (2005) Manipulation the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 in tomato affects vegetative development, flowering time and fruit nutritional quality. Plant Physiol 137:199–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giovannucci E (1999) Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene and cancer: review of the epidemiological literature. J Nat Cancer Inst 91:317–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giuliano G, Bartley GE, Scolnik PA (1993) Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato development. Plant Cell 5:379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grusak MA, DellaPenna D (1999) Improving the nutrient composition of plants to enhance human nutrition and health. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:133–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hirschberg J (1999) Production of high-value compounds: carotenoids and vitamin E. Curr Opin Biotechnol 10:186–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hirschberg J (2001) Carotenoid biosynthesis in flowering plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:210–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu Y, Roof S, Ye Z, Barry C, van Tuinen A, Vrebalov J, Bowler C, Giovannoni J (2004) Manipulation of light signal transduction as a means of modifying fruit nutritional quality of tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:9897–9902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu Y-S, Gur A, Ronen G, Causse M, Damidaux R, Buret M, Hirschberg Y, Zamir D (2003) There is more to tomato fruit colour than candidate genes. Plant Biotech J 1:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lois LM, Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Gallego F, Campos N, Boronat A (2000) Carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit development: regulatory role of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. Plant J 22:503–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mathews H, Clendennen SKJ, Caldwell CG, Liu XL, Connors K, Matheis N, Schuster DK, Menasco DJ, Wagoner W, Lightner J, Wagner DR (2003) Activation tagging in tomato identifies a transcriptional regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, modification and transport. Plant Cell 15:1689–1703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Menda N, Semel Y, Peled D, Eshed Y, Zamir D (2004) In silico screening of a saturated mutation library of tomato. Plant J 38:861–872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ralley L, Enfissi EMA, Misawa N, Schuch W, Bramley PM, Fraser PD (2004) Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid formation in higher plants. Plant J 39:477–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reynard GB (1956) Origin of Webb Special (Black Queen) in tomato. Rep Tomato Genet Coop 6:22Google Scholar
  33. Romer S, Fraser PD, Kiano JW, Shipton CA, Misawa N, Schuch W, Bramley PM (2000) Elevation of the provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants. Nat Biotech 18:666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosati C, Aquilani R, Dharmapuri S, Pallara P, Marusic C, Tavazza R, Bouvier F, Camara B, Giuliano G (2000) Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene and lycopene content in tomato fruit. Plant J 24:413–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Soressi GP (1975) New spontaneous or chemically-induced fruit ripening tomato mutants. Rep Tomato Gent Coop 25:21–22Google Scholar
  36. Truesdale MR (1994) Carotenoid biosynthesis in the tomato. PhD thesis, University of LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugenia M. A. Enfissi
    • 1
  • Paul D. Fraser
    • 1
  • Peter M. Bramley
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological Sciences, Royal HollowayUniversity of LondonEgham, SurreyUK

Personalised recommendations