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Photosynthetica

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 1313–1325 | Cite as

Effects of foliar applications of nitric oxide and spermidine on chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of citrus seedlings under salinity stress

  • D. KhoshbakhtEmail author
  • M. R. Asghari
  • M. Haghighi
Original paper
  • 190 Downloads

Abstract

The effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as nitric oxide donor, and spermidine (Spd) on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Bakraii seedlings (Citrus reticulata × Citrus limetta) were studied under NaCl stress. In citrus plants, SNP- and Spd-induced growth improvement was found to be associated with reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide content, and leaf Na+ and Cl concentration. However, we found increased leaf Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ concentrations, relative water content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, as well as higher photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate under saline regime. Foliar application of SNP and Spd alone mitigated the adverse effect of salinity, while the combined application proved to be even more effective.

Additional key words

abiotic stress biomass gas exchange oxidative stress photosystem II efficiency 

Abbreviations

APX

ascorbate peroxidase

Ca

atmospheric CO2 concentration

Ci

intercellular CO2 concentration

CAT

catalase

Chl

chlorophyll

E

transpiration rate

EL

electrolyte leakage

F0

minimal fluorescence yield of the dark-adapted state

Fm

maximal fluorescence yield of the dark-adapted state

Fv

variable fluorescence

Fv/Fm

maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII

gs

stomatal conductance

LN

number of leaves per plant

MDA

malondialdehyde

NPQ

nonphotochemical quenching

PAs

polyamines

Put

putrescine

POD

peroxidase

PN

net photosynthetic rate

qP

photochemical quenching

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RWC

relative water content

SL

length of shoot

SNP

sodium nitroprusside

SOD

superoxide dismutase

S

salinity stress

Spd

spermidine

Spm

spermine

TPDM

total plant dry mass

TPFM

total plant fresh mass

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© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Horticultural Science, College of AgricultureUrmia UniversityWest AzarbaijanIran
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture Science, College of AgricultureIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

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