Photosynthetica

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 508–516 | Cite as

Rearrangement of leaf traits with changing source-sink relationship in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaves

  • E. Jorquera-Fontena
  • M. Alberdi
  • M. Reyes-Díaz
  • N. Franck
Original papers
  • 128 Downloads

Abstract

The source-sink relationship is one of major determinants of plant performance. The influence of reproductive sink demand on light-saturated photosynthesis (P max), dark respiration (R D), stomatal conductance (g s), intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi), contents of soluble sugar (SSC), nitrogen, carbon, and photosynthetic pigments was examined in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. ‘Brigitta’) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. Measurements were performed three times per day on developed, sun-exposed leaves of girdled shoots with 0.1, 1, and 10 fruit per leaf (0.1F:L, 1F:L, and 10F:L, respectively) and nongirdled shoots bearing one fruit per leaf (NG). Girdling and lower fruit amount induced lower P max, g s, N, and total chlorophyll (Chl) and higher WUEi, SSC, R D, Chl a/b ratio and carotenoids-to-chlorophylls ratio (Car/Chl) for the 1F:L and 0.1F:L treatments. The impact of girdling was counterbalanced by 10F:L, with NG and 10F:L having similar values. Variables other than P max, R D, g s, WUEi, and SSC were unaffected throughout the course of the day. P max and g s decreased during the course of the day, but g s decreased more than P max in the afternoon, while WUEi was increasing in almost all treatments. SSC increased from the morning until afternoon, whereas R D peaked at noon regardless of the treatment. Generally, P max was closely and negatively correlated to SSC, indicating that sugar-sensing mechanisms played an important role in regulation of blueberry leaf photosynthesis. With respect to treatments, P max and N content were positively related, while R D was not associated to substrate availability. The enhanced Car/Chl ratio showed a higher photoprotection under the lower sink demand. Changes in the source-sink relationship in ‘Brigitta’ blueberry led to a rearrangement of physiological and structural leaf traits which allowed adjusting the daily balance between carbon assimilation and absorbed light energy.

Additional key words

gas exchange nitrogen photosynthetic pigments soluble sugars 

Abbreviations

AM

measurements at 08:00–10:40

Car

carotenoids

Chl

chlorophyll

Chltot

total chlorophylls

DM

dry mass

FM

fresh mass

gs

stomatal conductance to water vapour

NG

nongirdled shoots

Pmax

light-saturated photosynthesis

PM

measurements at 17:00–19:40

RD

dark respiration rate

SSC

soluble sugar concentration

WUEi

intrinsic water-use efficiency

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Avery D.J., Priestley C.A., Treharne K.J.: Integration of assimilation and carbohydrate utilization of apple–In: Marcelle R., Clijsters H., van Pouke W. (ed.): Photosynthesis and Plant Development. Pp. 221–231. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azcon-Bieto J., Lambers H., Day D.A.: Respiratory properties of developing bean and pea leaves.–Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 10: 237–245, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartoli C.G., Gomez F., Gergoff G. et al.: Up-regulation of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway enhances photosynthetic electron transport under drought conditions.–J. Exp. Bot. 56: 1269–1276, 2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Demmig-Adams B.: Carotenoids and photoprotection in plants. A role for the xanthophyll zeaxanthin.–BBA-Bioenergetics 1020: 1–24, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duan W., Fan P.G., Wang L.J. et al.: Photosynthetic response to low sink demand after fruit removal in relation to photoinhibition and photoprotection in peach trees.–Tree Physiol. 28: 123–132, 2008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Eberhard S., Finazzi G., Wollman F.A.: The dynamics of photosynthesis.–Annu. Rev. Genet. 42: 463–515, 2008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Famiani F., Antognozzi E., Boco M. et al.: Effects of altered source-sink relationships on fruit development and quality in Actinidia deliciosa.–Acta Hortic. 444: 355–360, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fondy B.F., Geiger D.R.: Diurnal pattern of translocation and carbohydrate metabolism in source leaves of Beta vulgaris L.–Plant Physiol. 70: 671–676, 1982.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Franck N., Vaast P., Génard M. et al.: Soluble sugars mediate sink feedback down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis in fieldgrown Coffea arabica.–Tree Physiol. 26: 517–525, 2006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Geiger D.R., Servaites J.C.: Diurnal regulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation.–Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 45: 235–256, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gilbert M.E., Zwieniecki M.A., Holbrook N.M.: Independent variation in photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance leads to differences in intrinsic water use efficiency in 11 soybean genotypes before and during mild drought.–J. Exp. Bot. 62: 2875–2887, 2011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gonçalves J.F.C., Barreto D.C.S., Santos Junior U.M. et al.: Growth, photosynthesis and stress indicators in young rosewood plants (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) under different light intensities.–Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 17: 325–334, 2005.Google Scholar
  13. Hallik L., Niinemets Ü., Kull O.: Photosynthetic acclimation to light in woody and herbaceous species: a comparison of leaf structure, pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics measured in the field.–Plant Biol. 14: 88–99, 2012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hendrix D.L., Huber S.C.: Diurnal fluctuations in cotton leaf carbon export, carbohydrate content and sucrose synthesizing enzymes.–Plant Physiol. 81: 584–586, 1986.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Iglesias D.J., Lliso I., Tadeo F.R. et al.: Regulation of photosynthesis through source: sink imbalance in citrus is mediated by carbohydrate content in leaves.–Physiol. Plantarum 116: 563–572, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jang J.C., Sheen J.: Sugar sensing in higher plants.–Plant Cell 6: 1665–1679, 1994.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Jorquera-Fontena E., Alberi M., Franck N.: Pruning severity affects yield, fruit load and fruit and leaf traits of ‘Brigitta’ blueberry.–J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 14: 855–868, 2014.Google Scholar
  18. Koch K.E., Nolte K.D., Duke E.R. et al.: Sugar levels modulate differential expression of maize sucrose synthase genes.–Plant Cell 4: 59–69, 1992.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Layne D.R., Flore J.A.: End-product inhibition of photosynthesis in Prunus cerasus L. in response to whole-plant source-sink manipulation.–J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 120: 583–599, 1995.Google Scholar
  20. Lichtenthaler H.K., Wellburn A.R.: Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents.–Biochem. Soc. T. 11: 591–592, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ludewig F., Sonnewald U.: High CO2-mediated down-regulation of photosynthetic gene transcripts is caused by accelerated leaf senescence rather than sugar accumulation.–FEBS Lett. 479: 19–24, 2000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Maust B.E., Williamson J.G., Darnell R.L.: Effects of flower bud density on vegetative and reproductive development and carbohydrate relations in southern highbush blueberry.–J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 124: 532–538, 1999.Google Scholar
  23. Nebauer S.G., Renau-Morata B., Guardiola J.L.: Photosynthesis down-regulation precedes carbohydrate accumulation under sink limitation in Citrus.–Tree Physiol. 31: 169–177, 2011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nii N.: Changes of starch and sorbitol in leaves before and after removal of fruits from peach trees.–Ann. Bot.-London 79: 139–144, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Niinemets Ü.: Photosynthesis and resource distribution through plant canopies.–Plant Cell Environ. 30: 1052–1071, 2007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Noguchi K., Terashima I.: Different regulation of leaf respiration between Spinacia oleracea, a sun species, and Alocasia odora, a shade species.–Physiol. Plantarum 101: 1–7, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Noguchi K.: Effects of light intensity and carbohydrate status on leaf and root respiration–In: Labert H., Ribas-Carbo M. (ed.): Plant Respiration. Pp. 63–83. Springer, Dordrecht 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nozue K., Maloof J.N.: Diurnal regulation of plant growth.–Plant Cell Environ. 29: 396–408, 2006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Paul M.J., Driscoll S.P.: Sugar repression of photosynthesis: the role of carbohydrates in signalling nitrogen deficiency through source:sink imbalance.–Plant Cell Environ. 20: 110–116, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Paul M.J., Foyer C.H.: Sink regulation of photosynthesis.–J. Exp. Bot. 52: 1383–1400, 2001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Proeitti P.: Effect of fruiting on leaf gas exchange in olive (Olea europaea L.).–Photosynthetica 38: 397–402, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raven J.A.: The cost of photoinhibition.–Physiol. Plantarum 142: 87–104, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roe J.H.: A colorimetric method for the determination of fructose in blood and urine.–J. Biol. Chem. 107: 15–22, 1934.Google Scholar
  34. Roitsch T.: Source-sink regulation by sugar and stress.–Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2: 198–206, 1999.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Strik B., Buller G., Hellman E.: Pruning severity affects yield, berry weight, and hand harvest efficiency of highbush blueberry.–HortScience 38: 196–199, 2003.Google Scholar
  36. Swain P.A., Darnell R.L.: Production systems influence source limitations to growth in ‘Sharpblue’ southern highbush blueberry.–J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 127: 409–414, 2002.Google Scholar
  37. Thiebus-Kaesberg P., Lenz F.: Effect of fruit load on growth, carbohydrate and mineral concentrations of leaves of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees.–Erwerbsobstbau 36: 130–133, 1994.Google Scholar
  38. Urban L., Léchaudel M., Lu P.: Effect of fruit load and girdling on leaf photosynthesis in Mangifera indica L.–J. Exp. Bot. 44: 2075–2085, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Walter A., Schurr U.: Dynamics of leaf and root growth: endogenous control versus environmental impact.–Ann. Bot.- London 95: 891–900, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wingler A., Marès M., Pourtau N.: Spatial patterns and metabolic regulation of photosynthetic parameters during leaf senescence.–New Phytol. 161: 781–789, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wünsche J.N., Greer D.H., Laing W.A. et al.: Physiological and biochemical leaf and tree responses to crop load in apple.–Tree Physiol. 25: 1253–1263, 2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Yong J.W.H., Wong S.C., Farquhar G.D.: Stomatal responses to changes in vapour pressure difference between leaf and air.–Plant Cell Environ. 20: 1213–1216, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Jorquera-Fontena
    • 1
  • M. Alberdi
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. Reyes-Díaz
    • 2
    • 3
  • N. Franck
    • 4
  1. 1.Programa de Doctorado y Magister en Ciencias de Recursos NaturalesUniversidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  3. 3.Center of Plant-Soil Interaction and Natural Resources, Biotechnology, Scientific, and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (BIOREN)Universidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  4. 4.Centro de Estudios de Zonas Áridas, Facultad de Ciencias AgronómicasUniversidad de ChileCoquimboChile

Personalised recommendations