, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 47–55 | Cite as

Kaolin-based, foliar reflective film protects photosystem II structure and function in grapevine leaves exposed to heat and high solar radiation

  • L. -T. Dinis
  • H. Ferreira
  • G. Pinto
  • S. Bernardo
  • C. M. Correia
  • J. Moutinho-Pereira
Original Papers


Extreme conditions, such as drought, high temperature, and solar irradiance intensity, are major factors limiting growth and productivity of grapevines. In a field experiment, kaolin particle film application on grapevine leaves was examined during two different summer conditions (in 2012 and 2013) with the aim to evaluate benefits of this practice against stressful conditions hindering photochemical processes. We used chlorophyll a fluorescence to investigate attached leaves. Two months after the application, during the hottest midday, the kaolin-treated plants showed by the JIP test significantly higher quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, flux ratios, maximum trapped excitation flux of PSI, absorption flux, electron transport flux, maximum trapped energy flux per cross section, and performance index than plants under control conditions in the warmer year. On the contrary, the treated plants showed a lower initial slope of relative variable fluorescence and a decrease in the absorption and electron transport per cross section. The JIP test showed higher efficiency of PSII in the plants treated with kaolin mainly in 2013 (higher temperature and drought). Our results supported the hypothesis that the accumulation of active PSII reaction centres was associated with decreased susceptibility to photoinhibition in the kaolin-treated plants and with more efficient photochemical quenching. Grapevines in the Douro Region seems to profit from the kaolin application.

Additional key words

chlorophyll a fluorescence transient energy flux Vitis vinifera 



absorption flux per cross section


average absorbed photon flux per PSII reaction centre





DFABS or log (PIABS)

driving force on absorption basis


dissipated energy flux at time zero per PSII


relative yield of electron transport


electron transport flux per cross section


electron transport flux at time zero per PSII


quantum yield of PSII photochemistry


the relative QA reduction


performance index


QA- reducing PSII reaction centres


normalized area above the OJIP transient


maximum trapped energy flux per cross section


maximum trapped excitation flux at time zero per PSI


quantum yield of the electron transport (at t = 0) flux from QA to QB


maximum quantum yield of primary PSII photochemistry (at t = 0)


efficiency/probability (at t = 0) with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB


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Copyright information

© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. -T. Dinis
    • 1
  • H. Ferreira
    • 1
  • G. Pinto
    • 2
  • S. Bernardo
    • 3
  • C. M. Correia
    • 1
  • J. Moutinho-Pereira
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB)Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Biology & CESAM — Centre for Environmental and Marine StudiesUniversidade de AveiroAveiroPortugal
  3. 3.School of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences (ECAV)Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

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