Severe water deficit-induced ethylene production decreases photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency in flag leaves of wheat
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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Jimai22 was used to evaluate the effect of ethylene evolution rate (EER) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and their relations with photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency in plants well-watered (WW) and under a severe water deficit (SWD). SWD caused a noticeable reduction in the grain mass. The marked increases in both EER and the ACC concentration were observed under SWD; it was reversed effectively by exogenous spermidine (Spd) or amino-ethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). Thermal images indicated that SWD increased obviously the temperature of flag leaves, mainly due to the decrease in transpiration rate under SWD. Exogenous Spd or AVG decreased to some extent the temperature of the flag leaves. The strong decline in photosynthetic rate (P N) and stomatal conductance as well as the photodamage of PSII were also observed under SWD after 14 and 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Intercellular CO2 concentration was reduced at 7 DAA, but slightly increased at 14 and 21 DAA under SWD, indicating that the decreased P N at 7 DAA might result from stomatal limitations, while the decline after 14 and 21 DAA might be attributed to nonstomatal limitations. Correlation analysis suggested that EER and ACC showed negative relations to photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency. Data obtained suggested that the effects of SWD were mediated predominantly by the increase in EER and ACC concentration, which greatly decreased the leaf photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency, and, therefore, reduced the grain mass. Application of Spd or AVG reduced the EER and ACC, and thus positively influenced photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency under SWD.
Additional key words1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ethylene chlorophyll fluorescence net photosynthetic rate severe water deficit Triticum aestivum L.
intercellular CO2 concentration
days after anthesis
ethylene evolution rate
electron transport rate
maximum variable fluorescence
net photosynthetic rate
severe water deficit
actual photochemical efficiency of PSII
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