, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 541–551 | Cite as

Influence of foliar-applied triacontanol on growth, gas exchange characteristics, and chlorophyll fluorescence at different growth stages in wheat under saline conditions

  • S. Perveen
  • M. Shahbaz
  • M. Ashraf
Original Papers


A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effect of foliar application of triacontanol (TRIA) on two cultivars (cv. S-24 and MH-97) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth stages. Plants were grown in full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution under salt stress (150 mM NaCl) or control (0 mM NaCl) conditions. Three TRIA concentrations (0, 10, and 20 μM) were sprayed over leaves at three different growth stages, i.e. vegetative (V), boot (B), and vegetative + boot (VB) stages (two sprays on same plants, i.e., the first at 30-d-old plants and the second 78-d-old plants). Salt stress decreased significantly growth, net photosynthetic rate (P N), transpiration rate (E), chlorophyll contents (Chl a and b), and electron transport rate (ETR), while membrane permeability increased in both wheat cultivars. Stomatal conductance (g s) decreased only in salt-sensitive cv. MH-97 under saline conditions. Foliar application of TRIA at different growth stages enhanced significantly the growth, P N, g s, Chl a and b contents, and ETR, while membrane permeability was reduced in both cultivars under salt stress. Of various growth stages, foliar-applied TRIA was comparatively more effective when it was applied at V and VB stages. Overall, 10 μM TRIA concentration was the most efficient in reducing negative effects of salinity stress in both wheat cultivars. The cv. S-24 showed the better growth and ETR, while cv. MH-97 exhibited higher nonphotochemical quenching.

Additional key words

chlorophyll photosynthesis salt stress 



boot stage




intracellular CO2 concentration


degrees of freedom


transpiration rate


electrical conductivity


electrical conductivity of saturated-paste extract


electron transport rate


minimal fluorescence of dark-adapted state


efficiency of photosystem II


fresh mass


stomatal conductance


optical density


plant growth regulators


net photosynthetic rate


photosystem II


nonphotochemical quenching coefficient


photochemical quenching efficiency


relative humidity


relative membrane permeability




vegetative stage


vegetative + boot stages


water-use efficiency


quantum yield of photosystem II


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyGC UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.University College of AgricultureUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

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