Advertisement

Photosynthetica

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 541–551 | Cite as

Influence of foliar-applied triacontanol on growth, gas exchange characteristics, and chlorophyll fluorescence at different growth stages in wheat under saline conditions

  • S. Perveen
  • M. Shahbaz
  • M. Ashraf
Original Papers

Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effect of foliar application of triacontanol (TRIA) on two cultivars (cv. S-24 and MH-97) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth stages. Plants were grown in full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution under salt stress (150 mM NaCl) or control (0 mM NaCl) conditions. Three TRIA concentrations (0, 10, and 20 μM) were sprayed over leaves at three different growth stages, i.e. vegetative (V), boot (B), and vegetative + boot (VB) stages (two sprays on same plants, i.e., the first at 30-d-old plants and the second 78-d-old plants). Salt stress decreased significantly growth, net photosynthetic rate (P N), transpiration rate (E), chlorophyll contents (Chl a and b), and electron transport rate (ETR), while membrane permeability increased in both wheat cultivars. Stomatal conductance (g s) decreased only in salt-sensitive cv. MH-97 under saline conditions. Foliar application of TRIA at different growth stages enhanced significantly the growth, P N, g s, Chl a and b contents, and ETR, while membrane permeability was reduced in both cultivars under salt stress. Of various growth stages, foliar-applied TRIA was comparatively more effective when it was applied at V and VB stages. Overall, 10 μM TRIA concentration was the most efficient in reducing negative effects of salinity stress in both wheat cultivars. The cv. S-24 showed the better growth and ETR, while cv. MH-97 exhibited higher nonphotochemical quenching.

Additional key words

chlorophyll photosynthesis salt stress 

Abbreviations

B

boot stage

Chl

chlorophyll

Ci

intracellular CO2 concentration

df

degrees of freedom

E

transpiration rate

EC

electrical conductivity

ECe

electrical conductivity of saturated-paste extract

ETR

electron transport rate

F0

minimal fluorescence of dark-adapted state

Fv/Fm

efficiency of photosystem II

FM

fresh mass

gs

stomatal conductance

OD

optical density

PGRs

plant growth regulators

PN

net photosynthetic rate

PSII

photosystem II

qN

nonphotochemical quenching coefficient

qP

photochemical quenching efficiency

RH

relative humidity

RMP

relative membrane permeability

TRIA

triacontanol

V

vegetative stage

VB

vegetative + boot stages

WUE

water-use efficiency

Y

quantum yield of photosystem II

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnon, D.I.: Copper enzyme in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. — Plant Physiol. 24: 1–15, 1949.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashraf, M.A., Ashraf, A.: Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency. — Pak. J. Bot. 44: 53–64, 2012.Google Scholar
  3. Ashraf, M., Athar, H.R., Harris, P.J.C., Kwon. T.R.: Some prospective strategies for improving crop salt tolerance. — Adv. Agron. 97: 45–110, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashraf, M.A., Ashraf, M., Shahbaz, M.: Growth stage-based modulation in antioxidant defense system and proline accumulation in two hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars differing in salinity tolerance. — Flora 207: 388–397, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borowski, E., Blamowski, Z.K.: The effect of triacontanol ‘TRIA’ and Asahi SL on the development and metabolic activity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants treated with chilling. — Folia Hort. 21: 39–48, 2009.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, X.P., Yuan, H.X., Chen, R.Z. et al.: Isolation and characterization of triacontanol-regulated genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.): possible role of triacontanol as plant growth stimulator. — Plant Cell Physiol. 43: 869–876, 2002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Eriksen, A.B., Selldén, G., Skogen, D., Nilsen, S.: Comparative analysis of the effect of triacontanol on photosynthesis, photorespiration and growth of tomato (C3-plants) and maize (C4-plants). — Planta 152: 44–49, 1981.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Haugstad, M., Ulsaker, L.K., Ruppel, A., Nilsen, S.: The effect of triacontanol on growth, photosynthesis and photorespiration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Anacystis nidulans. — Physiol. Plant. 58: 451–456, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. He, Y.-W., Loh, C.-S.: Cerium and lanthanum promote floral initiation and reproductive growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. — Plant Sci. 159: 117–124, 2000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hossain, M.A., Hasanuzzaman, M., Fujita, M.: Coordinate induction of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system by exogenous proline and glycinebetaine is correlated with salt tolerance in mung bean. — Front. Agr. China 5: 1–14, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Houtz, R.L., Ries, S.K., Tolbert, N.E.: Effect of triacontanol on Chlamydomonas I. Stimulation of growth and photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. — Plant Physiol. 79: 357–364, 1985.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Ivanov, A.G., Angelov, M.N.: Photosynthesis response to triacontanol correlates with increased dynamics of mesophyll protoplast and chloroplast membranes. — Plant Growth Regul. 21: 145–152, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Javid, M.J., Sorooshzadeh, A., Moradi, F. et al.: The role of phytohormones in alleviating salt stress in crop plants. — Aust. J. Crop Sci. 5: 726–734, 2011.Google Scholar
  14. Kanwal, H., Ashraf, M., Shahbaz, M.: Assessment of salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes. — Pak. J. Bot. 43: 2693–2699, 2011.Google Scholar
  15. Khan, M.M.A., Bhardwaj, G., Naeem, M., Moinuddin, Mohammad, F., Singh, M., Nasir, S., Idrees, M.: Response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to application of potassium and triacontanol. — ISHS Acta Hort. 823: 199–208, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krishnan, R.R., Kumari, B.D.R.: Effect of n-triacontanol on the growth of salt stressed soyabean plants. — J. Biosci. 19: 53–56, 2008.Google Scholar
  17. Marcelle, R.D., Chrominski, A.: Growth regulating activity of triacontanol. — Proc. 5th Ann. Meet. Plant Growth Regul. Work. Group. Pp. 116–123. Blacksburg 1978.Google Scholar
  18. Mehta, P., Jajoo, A., Mathur, S., Bharti. S.: Chlorophyll a fluorescence study revealing effects of high salt stress on Photosystem II in wheat leaves. — Plant Physiol. Biochem. 48: 16–20, 2010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Moorthy, P., Kathiresan, K.: Physiological responses of a mangroove seedling to triacontanol. — Biol. Plant. 35: 577–581, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Muthuchelian, K., Velayutham, M., Nedunchezhian, N.: Ameliorating effect of triacontanol on acidic mist-treated Erythrina variegata seedlings. Changes in growth and photosynthetic activities. — Plant Sci. 165: 1253–1259, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Naeem, M., Khan, M.M.A., Moinuddin, Siddiqui, M.H.: Triacontanol stimulates nitrogen-fixation, enzyme activities, photosynthesis, crop productivity and quality of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.). — Sci. Hort. 121: 389–396, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ouerghi, Z., Cornic, G., Roudani, M. et al.: Effect of NaCl on photosynthesis of two wheat species (Triticum durum and T. aestivum) differing in their sensitivity to salt stress. — J. Plant Physiol. 156: 335–340, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Perveen, S., Shahbaz, M., Ashraf, M.: Changes in mineral composition, uptake and use efficiency of salt stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants raised from seed treated with triacontanol. — Pak. J. Bot. 44: 27–35, 2012a.Google Scholar
  24. Perveen, S., Shahbaz, M., Ashraf, M.: Is pre-sowing seed treatment with triacontanol effective in improving some physiological and biochemical attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt stress? — J. Appl. Bot. Food Qual. 85: 41–48, 2012b.Google Scholar
  25. Perveen, S., Shahbaz, M., Ashraf, M.: Modulation in activities of antioxidant enzymes in salt stressed and non-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants raised from seed treated with triacontanol. — Pak. J. Bot. 43: 2463–2468, 2011.Google Scholar
  26. Perveen, S., Shahbaz, M., Ashraf, M.: Regulation in gas exchange and quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) in saltstressed and non-stressed wheat plants raised from seed treated with triacontanol. — Pak. J. Bot. 42: 3073–3081, 2010.Google Scholar
  27. Rajasekaran, L.R., Blake, T.J.: New plant growth regulators protect photosynthesis and enhance growth under drought of jack pine seedlings. — J. Plant Growth Regul. 18: 175–181, 1999.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Reddy, M.P., Vora, A.B.: Salinity induced changes in pigment composition and chlorophyllase activity of wheat. — Indian J. Plant Physiol. 29: 331–334, 1986.Google Scholar
  29. Saleem, M., Ashraf, M., Akram, N.A.: Salt (NaCl)-induced modulation in some key physio-biochemical attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). — J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 202–213, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarada, C., Giridhar, K., Reddy, T.Y.: Climate modification for off season production of coriander initiatives R&D in horticultural crops. — National seminar on new initiatives R&D in horticultural crops 26–29 November 2008 at OUAT, Bhubhaneshwar 2008.Google Scholar
  31. Shahbaz, M., Ashraf, M., Akram, N.A., Hanif, A., Hameed, S., Joham, S., Rehman, R.: Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthetic capacity, proline content and ion accumulation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). — Acta Physiol. Plant. 33: 1113–1122, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shahbaz, M., Ashraf, M., Al-Qurainy, F., Harris. P.J.C.: Salt tolerance in selected vegetable crops. — Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 31: 303–320, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shahbaz, M., Ashraf, M., Athar, H.R.: Does exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolide ameliorate salt induced growth inhibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)? — Plant Growth Regul. 55: 51–64, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shahbaz, M., Zia, B.: Does exogenous application of glycinebetaine through rooting medium alter rice (Oryza sativa L.) mineral nutrient status under saline conditions? — J. Appl. Bot. Food Qual. 84: 54–60, 2011.Google Scholar
  35. Singh, M., Khan, M.M.A., Moinuddin, Naeem, M.: Augmentation of nutraceuticals, productivity and quality of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) through triacontanol application. — Plant Biosystems 146: 106–113, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sivakumar, R., Pathmanaban, G., Kalarani, M.K. et al.: Effect of foliar application of growth regulators on biochemical attributes and grain yield in pearl millet. — Indian J. Plant Physiol. 7: 79–82, 2002.Google Scholar
  37. Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, G.W.: Statistical Methods. 7th Ed. — Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames 1980.Google Scholar
  38. Srivastava, N.K., Sharma, S.: Effect of triacontanol on photosynthesis, alkaloid content and growth in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). — Plant Growth Regul. 9: 65–71, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Strasser, R.J., Srivastava, A., Govindjee: Polyphasic chloro phyll a fluorescence transients in plants and cyanobacteria. — Photochem. Photobiol. 61: 32–42, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Verma, A., Malik, C.P., Gupta, V.K., Bajaj, Y.K.: Effects of in vitro triacontanol on growth, antioxidant enzymes, and photosynthetic characteristics in Arachis hypogaea L. — Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 23: 271–277, 2011.Google Scholar
  41. Zheng, Y.H., Xu, X.B., Wang, M.Y. et al.: Responses of salttolerant and intolerant wheat genotypes to sodium chloride: Photosynthesis, antioxidants activities, and yield. — Photosynthetica 47: 87–94, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zribi, L., Fatma, G., Fatma, R., et al.: Application of chlorophyll fluorescence for the diagnosis of salt stress in tomato “Solanum lycopersicum (variety Rio Grande)”. — Sci. Hort. 120: 367–372, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyGC UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.University College of AgricultureUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

Personalised recommendations