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Photosynthetica

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 509–516 | Cite as

Effects of addition of external nitric oxide on the allocation of photosynthetic electron flux in Rumex K-1 leaves under osmotic shock

  • H. D. Li
  • W. B. Wang
  • P. M. Li
  • K. Xu
  • H. Y. Gao
  • J. Xiao
Original Papers

Abstract

Photosynthetic electron flux allocation, stomatal conductance, and the activities of key enzymes involved in photosynthesis were investigated in Rumex K-1 leaves to better understand the role of nitric oxide (NO) in photoprotection under osmotic stress caused by polyethylene glycol. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously with a portable photosynthesis system integrated with a pulse modulated fluorometer to calculate allocation of photosynthetic electron fluxes. Osmotic stress decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and nitrate assimilation, increased Mehler reaction, and resulted in photoinhibition. Addition of external NO enhanced the stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, activities of glutamine synthetase and nitrate reductase, and reduced Mehler reaction and photoinhibition. These results demonstrated that osmotic stress reduced CO2 assimilation, decreasing the use of excited energy via CO2 assimilation which caused significant photoinhibition. Improving stomatal conductance by the addition of external NO enhanced the use of excited energy via CO2 assimilation. As a result, less excited energy was allocated to Mehler reaction, which reduced production of reactive oxygen species via this pathway. We suppose that Mehler reaction is not promoted unless photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism are prominently inhibited.

Additional key words

osmotic stress photoenergy allocation 

Abbreviations

APX

ascorbate peroxidase

Ca

atmospheric CO2 concentration

Ci

intercellular CO2 concentration

Fm

maximal fluorescence yield of the dark-adapted state

Fm

maximal fluorescence in the light-adapted state

F0

minimal fluorescence of the dark-adapted state

F0

minimal fluorescence of the light-adapted state

Fs

steady-state fluorescence

Fv/Fm

maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry

gs

stomatal conductance

GS

glutamine synthetase

GSNO

S-nitrosoglutathione

\(Ja_{O_{2 - dep} } \)

electron flux used for Mehler reaction

\(Ja_{O_{2 - indep} } \)

O2-independent alternative electron flux

JePCO

electron flux used in photorespiratory carbon oxidation

JePCR

electron flux used in photosynthetic carbon reduction

JePSII

total electron flux in PSII

NO

nitric oxide

NR

nitrate reductase

PEG

polyethylene glycol

PN

net photosynthetic rate

PPFD

photosynthetic photon flux density

PSII

photosystem II

qP

photochemical quenching coefficient

1−qP

measure of closed PSII reaction centers

ROS

reactive oxygen species

Rubisco

ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

RWC

relative water content

SOD

superoxide dismutase

Vc

rate of Rubisco carboxylation

Vo

rate of Rubisco oxidation

ΦPSII

effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. D. Li
    • 1
    • 3
  • W. B. Wang
    • 1
  • P. M. Li
    • 2
  • K. Xu
    • 3
  • H. Y. Gao
    • 1
  • J. Xiao
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop BiologyShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’an, ShandongP.R. China
  2. 2.College of HorticultureNorthwest A&F UniversityYangling, ShanxiPR China
  3. 3.College of Horticulture Science and EngineeringShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’an, ShandongP.R. China
  4. 4.Agrotechnical StationAgricultural Bureau of Daiyue DistrictTai’an, ShandongP.R. China

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