The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on photosynthetic and biochemical activities in super-high-yield hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu at the reproductive stage
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We investigated the light reactions, CO2 assimilation, but also the chloroplast ultrastructure in the upper three functional leaves (flag, 2nd, and 3rd leaves) of the Chinese super-high-yield hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ) with ultraviolet-B (UV-B) treatment during reproductive development. Photosynthetic parameters showed that the upper 3 functional leaves of LYPJ entered into senescence approximately 15 days after flag leaf emergence (DAE). Leaves in UV-B treatment exhibited greater efficiency in absorbing and utilizing light energy of photosystem II (PSII), characterized by higher chlorophyll (Chl) content and the whole chain electron transport rate (ETR). However, UV-B radiation reduced activities of Ca2+-ATPase and photophosphorylation. The significantly decreased activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was greatly associated with the decline in photosynthetic efficiency. The net photosynthetic rate (P N) and stomatal conductance (g s) suffered strong reductions before 25 DAE, and afterwards showed no significant difference between control and treatment. UV-B treatment delayed chloroplasts development of flag leaves. Chloroplast membranes later swelled and disintegrated, and more stromal thylakoids were parallel to each other and were arranged in neat rows, which might be responsible for better performance of the primary light reaction. It is likely that accumulation of starch and an increase in the number of lipid droplet and translucent plastoglobuli were results of an inhibition of carbohydrate transport. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation was unlikely to have detrimental effects on the absorption flux of photons and the transport of electrons, but it resulted in the decrease of photophosphorylation and Rubisco activation of LYPJ. The extent of the damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was consistent with the degree of the inhibition of photosynthesis.
Additional key wordschloroplast ultrastructure gas exchange light reaction photosynthesis Rubisco UV-B radiation.
the absorption flux of photons per cross section
days after flag leaf emergence
the dissipation per cross section
the potential electron transport per cross section
electron transport rate
maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII
the performance index is presented below on an absorption basis
the primary quinine acceptor of PSII
the phenomenological fluxes for trapping per cross section.
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