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Photosynthetica

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 447–457 | Cite as

Physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes to flooding

  • F. Z. Bertolde
  • A. -A. F. Almeida
  • C. P. Pirovani
  • F. P. Gomes
  • D. Ahnert
  • V. C. Baligar
  • R. R. Valle
Article

Abstract

Flooding is common in lowlands and areas with high rainfall or excessive irrigation. A major effect of flooding is the deprivation of O2 in the root zone, which affects several biochemical and morphophysiological plant processes. The objective of this study was to elucidate biochemical and physiological characteristics associated with tolerance to O2 deficiency in two clonal cacao genotypes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with two contrasting clones differing in flood tolerance: TSA-792 (tolerant) and TSH-774 (susceptible). Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, chemical composition and oxidative stress were assessed during 40 d for control and flooded plants. Flooding induced a decrease in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration of both genotypes. In flood conditions, the flood-susceptible clone showed changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, reductions in chlorophyll content and increased activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Flooding also caused changes in macro- and micronutrients, total soluble sugars and starch concentrations in different plant organs of both genotypes. Response curves for the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net photosynthetic rate (P N) for flooded plants were similar for both genotypes. In flood conditions, the flood-susceptible clone exhibited (1) nonstomatal limitations to photosynthesis since decreased in maximum potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) values indicated possible damage to the PSII light-harvesting complex; (2) oxidative stress; (3) increased leaf chlorosis; and (4) a reduction in root carbohydrate levels. These stresses resulted in death of several plants after 30 d of flooding.

Keywords

Photosynthetic Active Radiation Chlorophyll Fluorescence Lowercase Letter Total Soluble Sugar Uppercase Letter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Ci

intercellular CO2 concentration

Ci/Ca

ratio between CO2 in the intercellular mesophyll spaces and atmospheric CO2

Chl(s)

chlorophyll(s)

DM

dry matter

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

E

transpiration rate

F0

minimum fluorescence of the dark-adapted state

Fm

maximum fluorescence of the dark-adapted state

Fv

variable fluorescence

Fv/Fm

maximum potential quantum yield of PSII

gs

stomatal conductance to water vapor

PAR

photosynthetically active radiation

PODs

peroxidases

Pn

net photosynthetic rate

PPO

polyphenol oxidases

PS

photosystem

RD

the dark respiration

ROS

reactive oxygen species

TSS

total soluble sugars

WUE

instantaneous water-use efficiency

WUEi

intrinsic water-use efficiency

α

apparent quantum efficiency of photosynthesis

ΓPAR

compensation irradiance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Z. Bertolde
    • 1
  • A. -A. F. Almeida
    • 1
  • C. P. Pirovani
    • 1
  • F. P. Gomes
    • 1
  • D. Ahnert
    • 1
  • V. C. Baligar
    • 2
  • R. R. Valle
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Estadual de Santa CruzIlhéus, BABrasil
  2. 2.USDA-ARSBeltsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Centro de Pesquisas do CacauComissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira (CEPEC/CEPLAC)Ilhéus, BABrasil

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