Growth and photosynthetic responses of four landscape shrub species to elevated ozone
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Attention should be paid to ozone (O3) sensitivity of greening plant since ground-level O3 concentrations are increasing especially in urban and suburban area. We studied the ecophysiological responses to elevated O3 of four shrub species [Euonymus bungeanus Maxim. (EB), Photinia × fraseri (PF), Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxt. (CR) and Cornus alba L. (CA)], which are often used for garden greening in China. Saplings of those species were exposed to high O3 concentration (70 nmol mol−1, 7 h d−1 for 65 d) in open-top growth chambers. Responses to O3 were assessed by gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and dry mass. We found that elevated O3 significantly decreased lightsaturated net photosynthetic rate (P Nsat), transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (g s). The ratio of intercellular CO2 to ambient CO2 concentration (C i/C a) did not reduce under O3 fumigation which suggested that the O3-induced depressions of P Nsat under O3 fumigation were probably due to limitation of mesophyll processes rather than stomatal limitation. High O3 exposure also significantly depressed the maximum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm) which meant the O3-induced photoinhibition. Both root dry mass and root/shoot ratios were significantly decreased under ozone fumigation, but the total mass was unchanged. The responses of gas exchange such as P Nsat in these four shrubs to O3 exposure were species-specific. Highest loss of P Nsat was observed in EB (−49.6%), while the CR had the lowest loss (−36.5%). Moreover, the O3-exposed CR showed similar g s as CF, reflecting that its O3 flux might be unchanged under elevated O3 environment. Ozone drastically decreased actual quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR) in EB while increased ΦPSII and ETR in CR. Furthermore, the relative losses in P Nsat positively correlated with the relative decreases in ΦPSII and ETR which indicated that the impairment of photosynthesis was probably affected by the light reaction process. The light reaction of EB was impaired most seriously but that of CR was not damaged. All results indicated that EB was probably the most sensitive shrub species to O3 while CR the most tolerant one. Therefore, CR might be an ideal choice for greening in ozone-polluted areas.
Additional key wordsbiomass Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxt. chlorophyll a fluorescence Cornus alba Euonymus bungeanus gas exchange ozone Photinia × fraseri
the cumulative O3 exposure over a threshold of the 1-h average [O3] of 40 nmol mol−1 during daytime
Cornus alba L.
Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxt.
ambient CO2 concentration
intercellular CO2 concentration
Euonymus bungeanus Maxim.
electron transport rate
minimal fluorescence of the dark-adapted state
maximal fluorescence of the dark-adapted state
the maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry in the dark-adapted state
leaf dry mass
open top chambers
photosynthetically active radiation
Photinia × fraseri
light-saturated net photosynthetic rate
photosynthetic photon flux density
root dry mass
stem dry mass
volatile organic compounds
the actual quantum yield of PSII
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