Photosynthetica

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 161–171 | Cite as

Evaluation of cold stress of young industrial chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) plants by chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging. I. Light induction curve

  • S. Devacht
  • P. Lootens
  • J. Baert
  • J. van Waes
  • E. van Bockstaele
  • I. Roldán-Ruiz
Original Papers

Abstract

Industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus L., is cultivated for the production of inulin. Most varieties of industrial chicory exhibit rather poor early growth, which limits further yield improvements in their European cultivation area. The poor early growth could be due to suboptimum adaptation of the gene pool to growth at low temperatures, sometimes in combination with high light intensities, which is typical of early-spring mornings. We have used chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence to evaluate the response of young plants of the cultivar ‘Hera’ to low temperatures and high light intensities. Plants were grown at three temperatures: 16°C (reference), 8°C (intermediate), and 4°C (cold stress). Light-response measurements were carried out at different light intensities in combination with different measurement temperatures. Parameters that quantify the photosystem II (PSII) operating efficiency (including PSII maximum efficiency and PSII efficiency factor) and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) are important to evaluate the stress in terms of severity, the photosynthetics processes affected, and acclimation to lower growth temperatures. The results clearly demonstrate that in young industrial chicory plants the photosynthetic system adapts to lower growth temperatures. However, to fully understand the plant response to the stresses studied and to evaluate the long-term effect of the stress applied on the growth dynamics, the subsequent dark relaxation dynamics should also be investigated.

Additional key words

chilling low temperature nonphotochemical quenching photochemical quenching photoinhibition screening 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

analysis of variance

Chl

chlorophyll

EC

electrical conductivity

F0

the minimum Chl fluorescence in dark-adapted state

F0

the minimum Chl fluorescence in light-adapted state

Fm

the maximum Chl fluorescence in dark-adapted state

Fm

the maximum Chl fluorescence in light-adapted state

Fq

the difference between Fm′ and F′ (measured immediately before application of the saturation pulse used to measure Fm′)

Fq′/Fm

the operating quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry

Fq′/Fv

the PSII efficiency factor

Fv

the variable (differential) fluorescence in dark-adapted state (Fm − F0)

Fv

the variable fluorescence in light-adapted state (Fm′ − F0′)

Fv/Fm

the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry in dark-adapted state

Fv′/Fm

the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry in light-adapted state

Fv/(Fm·F0)

the fraction of PSII centers that are capable of photochemistry

GT

growth temperature

ML

measurement light intensity

MT

measurement temperature

NPQ

nonphotochemical quenching of the Chl fluorescence signal

PAM

pulse amplitude modulated

PAR

photosynthetic active radiation

PSII

photosystem II

qN

nonphotochemical quenching coefficient of the Chl fluorescence signal

SE

standard error

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams W.W., III, Demmig-Adams, B.: Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to monitor plant responses to the environment. — In: Papageorgiou, G.C., Govindjee (ed.): Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: a Signature of Photosynthesis. Pp. 583–604. Springer, Dordrecht 2004.Google Scholar
  2. Alves, P.L.D.A, Magalhaes, A.C.N., Barja, P.R.: The phenomenon of photoinhibition of photosynthesis and its importance in reforestation. — Bot. Rev. 68: 193–208, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baert, J., Van Bockstaele, E.: Heritability of bolting sensitivity, fresh root weight, inulin content and inulin chain length of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). — 4th European Symposium on Industrial Crops and Products. Vol. 14. Pp. 188–194. Bonn1999.Google Scholar
  4. Baert, J.R.A.: The effect of sowing and harvest date and cultivar on inulin yield and composition of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) roots. — Indus. Crops Prod. 6: 195–199, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, N.R.: A possible role for photosystem-II in environmental perturbations of photosynthesis. — Physiol. Plant. 81: 563–570, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker, N.R., Oxborough, K.: Chlorophyll fluorescence as a probe of photosynthetic productivity. — In: Papageorgiou, G.C., Govindjee (ed.): Chlorophyll a fluorescence: a signature of photosynthesis Pp. 65–82. Springer, Dordrecht 2004.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, N.R., Rosenqvist, E.: Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence can improve crop production strategies: an examination of future possibilities. — J. Exp. Bot. 55: 1607–1621, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bilger, W., Björkman, O.: Role of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection elucidated by measurements of light induced absorbance changes, fluorescence and photosynthesis in leaves of Hedera canariensis. — Photosynth. Res. 25: 173–185, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brüggemann, W., Vanderkooij, T.A.W., Vanhasselt, P.R.: Long-term chilling of young tomato plants under low light and subsequent recovery.2. chlorophyll fluorescence, carbon metabolism and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase. — Planta 186: 179–187, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Devacht, S., Lootens, P., Carlier, L., Baert, J., Van Waes, J., Van Bockstaele, E.: Evaluation of early vigour and photosynthesis of industrial chicory in relation to temperature. — Photosynth. Res. 91: S2551, 2007.Google Scholar
  11. Devacht, S., Lootens, P., Roldán-Ruiz, I., Carlier, L., Baert, J., Van Waes, J., Van Bockstaele, E.: Influence of low temperatures on the growth and photosynthetic activity of industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus L. partim. — Photosynthetica 47: 372–380, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dogniaux, R., Lemoine, M., Sneyers, R.: [Année-type moyenne pour le traitement de problèmes de capitation d’ énergie soliare.] — Royal Meteorol. Inst. Belgium, Brussels 1978. [In French.]Google Scholar
  13. Ehlert, B., Hincha, D.K.: Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging accurately quantifies freezing damage and cold acclimation responses in Arabidopsis leaves. — Plant Meth. 4: 12, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fracheboud, Y., Haldimann, P., Leipner, J., Stamp, P.: Chlorophyll fluorescence as a selection tool for cold tolerance of photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.). — J. Exp. Bot. 50: 1533–1540, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fracheboud, Y., Leipner, J.: The application of chlorophyll fluorescence to study light, temperature and drought stress. — In: DeEll, J.R., Toivonen, P.M.A. (ed.): Practical Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Plant Biology. Pp. 125–150, Kluwer Academic Publ, Dordrecht 2003.Google Scholar
  16. Genty, B., Briantais, J.M., Baker, N.R.: The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorecence. — Biochim. Biophys. Acta 990: 87–92, 1989.Google Scholar
  17. Govindachary, S., Bukhov, N.H., Joly, D., Carpentier, R.: Photosystem II inhibition by moderate light under low temperature in intact leaves of chilling-sensitive and -tolerant plants. — Physiol. Plant. 121: 322–333, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Govindjee: Chlorophyll a fluorescence: a bit of basics and history. — In: Papageorgiou, G.C., Govindjee (ed.): Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthesis. Pp. 1–42. Springer, Dordrecht 2004.Google Scholar
  19. Gray, G.R., Hope, B.J., Qin, X.Q., Taylor, B.G., Whitehead, C.L.:The characterization of photoinhibition and recovery during cold acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana using chlororphyll fluorescence imaging. — Physiol. Plant. 119: 365–375, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hendrickson, L., Ball, M.C., Osmond, C.B., Furbank, R.T., Chow, W.S.: Assessment of photoprotection meachanisms of grapevines at low temperature. — Func. Plant Biol. 30: 631–642, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kingston-Smith, A.H., Thomas, H., Foyer, C.H.: Chlorophyll a fluorescence, enzyme and antioxidant analyses provide evidence for the operation f alternative electron sinks during leaf senscence in a stay-green mutant of Festuca pratensis. — Plant Cell Environ. 20: 1323–1337, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kodama, H., Horiguchi, G., Nishiuchi, T., Nishimura, M., Iba, K.: Fatty-acid desaturation during chilling acclimation is one of the factors involved in conferring low-temperature tolerance to young tobacco-leaves. — Plant Physiol. 107: 1177–1185, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Koroleva, O.Y., Bruggemann, W., Krause, G.H.: Photoinhibition, xanthophyll cycle and in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence quenching of chilling-tolerant Oxyria digyna and chillingsensitive Zea mays. — Physiol. Plant. 92: 577–584, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krause, G.H., Jahns, P.: Non-photochemical energy dissipation determined by chlorophyll fluorescence quenching: Characterization and function. — In: Papageorgiou, G.C., Govindjee (ed.): Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthesis. Pp. 463–495. Springer, Dordrecht 2004.Google Scholar
  25. Kyle, D., Ohad, I., Arntzen, C.J.: Membrane protein damage and repair: Selective loss of a quinone-protein function in chloroplast membranes. — Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 81: 4070–4074, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lambrev, P.H., Tsonev, T., Velikova, V., Georgieva, K., Lambreva, M.D., Yordanov, I., Kovacs, L., Garab, G.: Trapping of the quenched conformation associated with nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence at low temperature. — Photosynth. Res. 94: 321–332, 2007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lawson, T., Oxborough, K., Morison, J.I.L., Baker, N.R.: Responses of photosynthetic electron transport in stomatal guard cells and mesophyll cells in intact leaves to light, CO2 and humidity. — Plant Physiol. 128: 52–62, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leipner, J., Oxborough, K., Baker, N.R.: Primary sites of ozone-induced perturbations of photosynthesis in leaves: identification and characterization in Phaseolus vulgaris using high resolution chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. — J. Exp. Bot. 52: 1689–1696, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lichtenthaler, H.K., Burkhart, S.: Photosynthesis and high light stress. — Bulg. J. Plant Physiol. 25: 3–16, 1999.Google Scholar
  30. Lootens, P., Devacht, S., Baert, J., Van Waes, J., Van Bockstaele, E., Roldán-Ruiz, I.: Evaluation of cold stress of young industrial chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) plants by chlororphyll a fluorescence imaging. II. Dark relaxation kinetics. — Photosynthetica 49: 185–194, 2011.Google Scholar
  31. Lootens, P., Van Waes, J., Carlier, L.: Effect of a short photoinhibition stress on photosynthesis, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and pigment contents of different maize cultivars. Can a rapid and objective stress indicator be found? — Photosynthetica 42: 187–192, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Madhava Rao, K.V.: Introduction. — In: Madhava Rao, K.V., Raghavendra, A.S., Janardhan Reddy, K. (ed.): Physiology and Molecular Biology of Stress Tolerance in Plants. Pp. 1–14. Springer, Dordrecht 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nedbal, L., Whitmarsh, J.: Chlorofyll fluorescence imaging of leaves and fruits. — In: Papageorgiou, G.C., Govindjee (ed.): Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthesis. Pp. 389–407. Springer, Dordrecht 2004.Google Scholar
  34. Osmond, C.B.: What is photoinhibition? Some insights from comparisons of shade and sun plants. — In: Baker, N.R., Bowyer, J.R. (ed.): Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis: from Molecular Mechanisms to the Field. Pp. 1–24. BIOS Scientific Publ., Oxford 1994.Google Scholar
  35. Oxborough, K.: Imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence: theoretical and practical aspects of an emerging technique for the monitoring of photosynthetic performance. — J. Exp. Bot. 55: 1195–1205, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oxborough, K., Baker, N.R.: Resolving chlorophyll a fluorescence images of photosynthetic efficiency into photochemical components — calculation of qP and Fv′/Fm′ without measuring F0′. — Photosynth. Res. 54: 135–142, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Palta, J.P., Whitaker, B.D., Weiss, L.S.: Plasma-membrane lipids associated with genetic-variability in freezing tolerance and cold-acclimation of Solanum species. — Plant Physiol. 103: 793–803, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sayed, O.H.: Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool in cereal crop research. — Photosynthetica 41: 321–330, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Venema, J.H., Eekhof, M., van Hasselt, P.R.: Analysis of lowtemperature tolerance of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) hybrid with chloroplasts from a more chilling-tolerant L. hirsutum accession. — Ann. Bot. 85: 799–807, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wolfe, D.W.: Low-temperature effects on early vegetative growth, leaf gas-exchange and water potential of chillingsensitive and chilling-tolerant crop species. — Ann. Bot. 67: 205–212, 1991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Devacht
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Lootens
    • 1
  • J. Baert
    • 1
  • J. van Waes
    • 1
  • E. van Bockstaele
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. Roldán-Ruiz
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Sciences UnitInstitute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO)MelleBelgium
  2. 2.Faculty Bioscience Engineering, Department of Plant ProductionGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations