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Photosynthetica

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 421–429 | Cite as

Diurnal and seasonal variation in photosynthesis of peach palms grown under subtropical conditions

  • M. L. S. TucciEmail author
  • N. M. Erismann
  • E. C. Machado
  • R. V. Ribeiro
Original Papers

Abstract

The Amazonian peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has been grown for heart-of-palm production under subtropical conditions. As we did not see any substantial study on its photosynthesis under Amazonian or subtropical conditions, we carried out an investigation on the diurnal and seasonal variations in photosynthesis of peach palms until the first heart-of-palm harvest, considering their relationship with key environmental factors. Spineless peach palms were grown in 80-L plastic pots, under irrigation. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence emission measurements were taken in late winter, mid spring, mid summer and early autumn, from 7:00 to 18:00 h, with an additional chlorophyll fluorescence measurement at 6:00 h. The highest net CO2 assimilation (P N), observed in mid summer, reached about 15 μmol m−2 s−1, which was about 20% higher than the maximum values found in autumn and spring, and 60% higher than that in winter The same pattern of diurnal course for P N was observed in all seasons, showing higher values from 8:00 to 9:00 h and declining gradually from 11:00 h toward late afternoon. The diurnal course of stomatal conductance (g s) followed the same pattern of P N, with the highest value of 0.6 mol m−2 s−1 being observed in February and the lowest one (0.23 mol m−2 s−1) in September. The maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was above 0.75 in the early morning in all the months. The reversible decrease was observed around midday in September and October, suggesting the occurrence of dynamic photoinhibition. A significant negative correlation between the leaf-air vapour pressure difference (VPDleaf-air) and P N and a positive correlation between P N and g s were observed. The photosynthesis of peach palm was likely modulated mainly by the stomatal control that was quite sensible to atmospheric environmental conditions. Under subtropical conditions, air temperature (T air) and VPDleaf-air impose more significant effects over P N of peach palm than an excessive photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The occurrence of dynamic photoinhibition indicates that under irrigation, peach palms appeared to be acclimated to the full-sunlight conditions under which they have been grown.

Additional key words

Bactris gasipaes chlorophyll fluorescence gas exchange stomatal conductance vapour pressure deficit 

Abbreviations

AGR

absolute growth rate

Ci

intercellular CO2 concentration

ETR

apparent electron transport rate

F

instantaneous fluorescence of light-adapted state

F0

minimal fluorescence yield of dark-adapted state

Fm

maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted state

Fm

maximal fluorescence of light-adapted state

Fv

variable fluorescence of dark-adapted state

Fv/Fm

maximal PSII quantum yield

gs

stomatal conductance

PN

net CO2 assimilation

PPFD

photosynthetic photon flux density

PSII

photosystem II

Tair

air temperature

Tleaf

leaf temperature

VPDair

air vapour pressure deficit

VPDleaf-air

leaf-toair vapour pressure difference

ΔF

variable fluorescence of light-adapted state

ΔF/Fm

effective PSII quantum yield

Ψleaf

leaf water potential

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Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Fapesp, Brazil) for financial support (no 00/02782-6). E.C. Machado and R.V. Ribeiro are also grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil) for the fellowship granted.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. S. Tucci
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. M. Erismann
    • 2
  • E. C. Machado
    • 2
  • R. V. Ribeiro
    • 2
  1. 1.Section of Tropical Plants, Center for Research and Development in HorticultureInstituto AgronomicoCampinas/SPBrazil
  2. 2.Section of Plant Physiology, Center for Research and Development in Ecophysiology and BiophysicsInstituto AgronomicoCampinas/SPBrazil

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