, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 227–234 | Cite as

Shade effect alters leaf pigments and photosynthetic responses in Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) grown under field conditions

  • M. Bertamini
  • K. Muthuchelian
  • N. NedunchezhianEmail author


The contents of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) per fresh mass were lower in shade needles than in sun needles. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) activity and contents of soluble proteins were also significantly lower in shade needles. In isolated thylakoids, a marked lower rate of whole chain and photosystem (PS) 2 activities were observed in shade needles. Smaller lower rate of PS1 activity was also observed in shade needles. The artificial exogenous electron donors, diphenyl carbazide (DPC) and NH2OH, significantly restored the loss of PS2 activity in shade needles. Similar results were obtained when Fv/Fm was evaluated by Chl fluorescence measurements. The marked lower rate of PS2 activity in shade needles was due to the lower contents of 47, 33, 28–25, 23, and 17 kDa polypeptides. This conclusion was confirmed by immunological studies showing that the content of the 33 kDa protein of the watersplitting complex was diminished significantly in shade needles.

Additional key words

chlorophyll fluorescence diphenyl carbazide donor side electron transport NH2OH photosystems 1 and 2 polypeptides ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase 









2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol


diphenyl carbazide


minimal fluorescence


variable fluorescence


methyl viologen


photosynthetic active radiation


photon flux density




ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase


sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis




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Copyright information

© Institute of Experimental Botany, ASCR 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bertamini
    • 1
  • K. Muthuchelian
    • 2
  • N. Nedunchezhian
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Istituto Agrario di San Michele all’ AdigeSan Michele all’ AdigeItaly
  2. 2.Center for Biodiversity and Forest Studies, School of Energy SciencesMadurai Kamaraj UniversityMaduraiIndia

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