, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 293–298 | Cite as

Protection of winter rape photosystem 2 by 24-epibrassinolide under cadmium stress

  • A. JaneczkoEmail author
  • J. Koscielniak
  • M. Pilipowicz
  • G. Szarek-Lukaszewska
  • A. Skoczowski
Brief Communication


Seedlings of winter rape were cultured in vitro on media containing 24-epibrassinolide, EBR (100 nM) and cadmium (300 µM). After 14 d of growth, fast fluorescence kinetics of chlorophyll (Chl) a and contents of photosynthetic pigments and Cd in cotyledons were measured. Cd was strongly accumulated but its content in cotyledons was 14.7 % smaller in the presence of EBR. Neither Cd nor EBR influenced the contents of Chl a and b and carotenoids. Cd lowered the specific energy fluxes per excited cross section (CS) of cotyledon. The number of active reaction centres (RC) of photosystem 2 (RC/CS) decreased by about 21.0 % and the transport of photosynthetic electrons (ET0/CS) by about 17.1 %. Simultaneously, under the influence of Cd, the activity of O2 evolving centres (OEC) diminished by about 19.5 % and energy dissipation (DI0/CS) increased by about 14.6 %. In the cotyledons of seedlings grown on media without Cd, EBR induced only a small increase in the activity of most photochemical reactions per CS. However, EBR strongly affected seedlings cultured with cadmium. Specific energy fluxes TR0/CS and ET0/CS of the cotyledons of plants Cd+EBR media were about 10.9 and 20.9 % higher, respectively, than values obtained for plants grown with Cd only. EBR also limited the increase of DI0/CS induced by Cd and simultaneously protected the complex of OEC against a decrease of activity. Hence EBR reduces the toxic effect of Cd on photochemical processes by diminishing the damage of photochemical RCs and OECs as well as maintaining efficient photosynthetic electron transport.

Additional key words

carotenoids chlorophyll fluorescence induction photosynthesis winter rape 









cadmium ion (Cd2+)




cross section of the sample


energy dissipation




energy flux for electron transport


oxygen evolving complexes (centres)


primary bound plastoquinone


photosystem 2


reaction centre


energy flux for trapping


maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry


efficiency with a trapped exciton can move an electron into the electron transport chain further than QA


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Copyright information

© Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Janeczko
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Koscielniak
    • 2
  • M. Pilipowicz
    • 1
  • G. Szarek-Lukaszewska
    • 3
  • A. Skoczowski
    • 1
  1. 1.The Franciszek Gorski Institute of Plant PhysiologyPolish Academy of SciencesKrakowPoland
  2. 2.Department of Plant PhysiologyAgricultural UniversityKrakowPoland
  3. 3.The Wladyslaw Szafer Institute of BotanyPolish Academy of SciencesKrakowPoland

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