Advertisement

Cognitive self-management requires the phenomenal registration of intrinsic state properties

  • Frederic Peters
Article
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

Cognition is not, and could not possibly be, entirely representational in character. There is also a phenomenal form of cognitive expression that registers the intrinsic properties of mental states themselves. Arguments against the reality of this intrinsic phenomenal dimension to mental experience have focused either on its supposed impossibility (since the brain possesses no such properties), or secondly, the non-appearance of any such qualities to introspection. This paper argues to the contrary, that the registration of cognitive state properties does take place independently of representational content; and necessarily so, since it supports an independent function—self-management. Given the fact that unlike a computer, the brain must, of necessity, operate itself, it needs to be in touch with itself to do so. Intrinsic phenomenal forms of cognitive expression allow the brain to do just that by registering characteristics of the cognitive states themselves. Self-management might well prove to constitute the prime reason for the emergence of subjectivity itself.

Keywords

Intrinsic Phenomenal Representation Self-management Executive control 

Notes

References

  1. Andersen, R. A., Essick, G. K., & Siegel, R. M. (1985). Encoding of spatial location by posterior parietal neurons. Science, 230, 456–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, D. (1968). A materialist theory of mind. New York: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  3. Aydede, M. (2010). Pain. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Aydede, M. (2017a). Pain: Perception or introspection? In J. Corns (Ed.), Routledge handbook of philosophy of pain. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Aydede, M. (2017b). Is the experience of pain transparent? Introspeciting phenomenal qualities. Synthese (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  6. Aydede, M., & Fulkerson, M. (2015). Affect: Representationalists’ headache. Philosophical Studies, 170(2), 175–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  8. Batty, C. (2010). Scents and sensibiia. American Philosophical Quarterly, 47, 103–118.Google Scholar
  9. Bealer, G. (1982). Quality and concept. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bermond, B. (2008). The emotional feeling as a combination of two qualia: A neurophilosophical-based emotion theory. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 897–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Block, N. (1990). Consciousness and accessibility. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13(4), 596–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Block, N. (1992). Begging the question against phenomenal consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15(2), 205–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Block, N. (1995). On a confusion about a function of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 227–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Block, N. (1996). Mental paint and mental latex. Philosophical Issues, 7, 19–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Block, N. (2007). Consciousnes, accessability, and the mesh between psychology and neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 481–548.Google Scholar
  16. Block, N. (2010). Attention and mental paint. Philosophical Issues, 20, 23–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boghossian, P. A., & Vellemen, J. D. (1989). Colour as a secondary quality. Mind, 98, 81–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bordini, D. (2017). Not in the mood for intentionalism. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 41(1), 60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breland, K., & Breland, M. (1961). The misbehavior of organisms. American Psychologist, 16(11), 681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brentano, F. (1874). Psychology from an empirical standpoint (Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt. Leipzig: Verlag Dunker & Humbolt.Google Scholar
  21. Broad, C. D. (1925). The mind and its place in nature. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  22. Bullock, T. H. (1959). The neuron doctrine and electrophysiology. Science, 129, 997–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bullock, T. H., et al. (2005). The neuron doctrine redux. Science, 310, 791–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Byrne, A. (2001). Intentionalism defended. The Philosophical Review, 110, 199–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carruthers, P. (2017). Valence and value. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 97(3), 658–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cauller, Larry. (1995). Layer 1 of primary sensory neocortex: Where top-down converges upon botton-up. Behavioral & Brain Research, 71(1-2), 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chomsky, N. (1959). Review of verbal behavior. Language, 35, 26–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Churchland, P. S. (2002). Self-representation in nervous systems. Science, 296, 308–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark, A. (1997). How to respond to philosophers on raw feels. Presented at the John B. Pierce Laboratory, Yale University, 24 February 1997. http://selfpace.uconn.edu/paper/yaletalk.htm.
  30. Coates, P. (2009). The multiple contents of experience: Representation and the awareness of phenomenal qualities. Philosophical Topics, 37(1), 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Connors, B., & Long, M. (2004). Electrcal synapses in the mammalian brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 393–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Craik, F., & Lockhart, R. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory reseach. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crane, T. (1998). Intentionality as the mark of the mental. In A. O’Hear (Ed.), Contemporary issues in the philosophy of mind (pp. 229–251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crane, T. (2000). The origins of qualia. In T. Crane & S. Patterson (Eds.), The history of the mind-body problem (pp. 169–194). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Crane, T. (2001). Elements of mind: An introduction to the philosphy of mind. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Crane, T. (2003). The intentional structure of consciousness. In A. Jokic & Q. Smith (Eds.), Consciousness: New philosophical perspectives (pp. 33–56). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Crane, T. (2009). Intentionalism. In A. Beckermann & B. McLaughlin (Eds.), Oxford handbook to the philosophy of mind (pp. 474–493). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Crick, F., & Asanuma, C. (1986). Certain aspects of the anatomy of the cerebral cortex. In J. McClelland & D. Rumerlhart (Eds.), Parallel distributed processing (v2) (pp. 333–371). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  39. Cutter, B., & Tye, M. (2011). Tracking representationalism and the painfulness of pain. Philosophical Issues, 21, 90–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Sousa, R. (2004). Emotions. What I know, what I’d like to think I know, and what I’d like to think. In R. C. Solomon (Ed.), Thinking about feeling (pp. 61–75). Contemporary philosophers on emotions, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. de Sousa, R. (2014). Emotion. In E. Zalta (ed.), The stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/emotion/.
  42. Deonna, J., & Teroni, F. (2012). The emotions: A philosophical introduction. Oxford, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Desimone, R. (1992). The physiology of memory: Recordings of things past. Science, 258, 245–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Destexhe, A., Rudolf, M., & Pare, D. (2003). The high conductance state of neocortic neurons in vivo. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 739–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Döring, S. A. (2007). Seeing what to do: Affective perception and rational motivation. dialectica, 61, 363–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dretske, F. (1995). Naturalizing the mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  47. Dretske, F. (2003). Experience as representation. Philosophical Issues, 13, 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Droege, P. (2003). Caging the beast. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Farkas, K. (2009). Not every feeling is intentional. European Jounal of Analytical Philosophy, 5(2), 39–52.Google Scholar
  50. Feldman, F. (2004). Pleasure and the good life: Concerning the nature, varieties and plausibility of hedonism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fernandez-Duque, D. (2000). Executive attention and metacognitive regulation. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 288–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Frijda, N. H. (1993). Moods, emotion episodes, and emotions. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 381–403). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  53. Frith, C. (1987). The positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia reflect impairments in the perception and initiation of action. Psychological Medicine, 17, 631–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldie, P. (2000). The emotions: A philosophical exploration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Goldie, P. (2002). Emotions, feelings and intentionality. Phenomenology and Cognitive Sciences, 1, 235–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grice, P. (1962). Some remarks about the senses. In R. J. Butler (Ed.), Analytical philosophy, first series. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  57. Gunderson, K. (1970). Asymmetries and Mind-Body Perplexities. In M. Radner & S. Winokur (Eds.), Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science (Vol. IV). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  58. Guzeldere, G. (1997). The many faces of consciousness: A field guide. In N. Block, O. Flanagan, & G. Guzeldere (Eds.), The nature of consciousness (pp. 1–68). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  59. Harman, G. (1990). The intrinsic quality of experience. Philosophical Perspectives, 4, 31–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Haugland, J. (1985). Artificial intelligence: The very idea (1985). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  61. Hill, C. (2009). Consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hommel, B., Müsseler, J., Ascherleben, G., & Prinz, W. (2001). The theory of event coding (TEC): A framework for perception and action planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 849–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Horgan, T., & Tienson, J. (2002). The intentionality of phenomenology and the phenomenology of intentionality. In D. J. Chalmers (Ed.), Philosophy of mind: Classical and contemporary readings (pp. 520–533). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Husserl, E. (1901). Logical investigations, trans J.N. Findlay. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.Google Scholar
  65. Jackson, F. (1982). Epiphenomenal qualia. Philosophical Quarterly, 32, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jackson, F. (1986). What mary didn’t know. Journal of Philosophy, 83, 291–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jackson, F. (1998). Epiphenomenal qualia: Consciousness and emotion in cognitive science. In A. Clark & J. Toribio (Eds.), Consciousness and emotion in cognitive science (pp. 197–206). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  68. Jacobson, H. (2013). Killing the messenger: Representationalism and the painfulness of pain. Philosophical Quarterly, 63(252), 509–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Keeley, B. (2002). Making sense of the senses: Individuating modalities in humans and other animals. Journal of Philosophy, 99, 5–28.Google Scholar
  70. Keeley, B. (2009). The early history of qualia. In J. Symons & P. Calvo (Eds.), Routledge companion to philosophy of psychology (pp. 71–89). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Kim, J. (1996). Philosophy of mind. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  72. Kind, A. (2007). Restrictions on representationalism. Philosophical Studies, 134, 405–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kind, A. (2008). How to believe in qualia. In E. Wright (Ed.), The case for qualia (pp. 285–298). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kind, A. (2013). The case against representationalism about moods. In U. Kriegel (Ed.), Current controversies in the philosophy of mind (pp. 113–134). Oxford, UK: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  75. Kriegel, U. (2003). Consciousness ass sensory quality and as implicit self-awareness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 2, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kriegel, U. (2017). Reductive representationalism and emotional phenomenology. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 41(1), 41–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kron, A., Goldstein, A., & Lee, D. (2013). How are you feeling? Revisiting the quantification of emotional qualia. Psychological Science, 24, 1503–1511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kumar, S. (2004). Neural networks: A classroom approach. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  79. Lewis, C. I. (1929). Mind and the world order. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  80. Lockwood, M. (1989). Mind, brain and the quantum. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  81. London, M., & Häusser, M. (2005). Dendritic computation. Annual Review of Neruoscience, 28, 503–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lopes, D. (2000). What is it like to see with your ears? Philosophy & Phenomenologiccal Research, 60(2), 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lormond, E. (1994). Qualia! (Now showing at a theater near you). Philosophical Topics, 22, 127–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Luccio, R. (2003). Isomorphism and representationalism. Brain & Behavioral Sciences, 26(4), 418–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lutz, A. (2015). The phenomenal character of emotional experience: A look at perception theory. Dialectica, 69(3), 313–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Luu, P., & Tucker, D. M. (2004). Self-regulation by the medial frontal cortex: Limbic representation of motive set-points. In M. Beauregard (Ed.), Consciousness, emotional self-regulation and the brain (pp. 123–161). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lycan, W. (1996). Consciousness and experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  88. Lycan, W. G. (1987). Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  89. MacLennan, B. J. (1992). Field communication in the brain. In K. Pribram (Ed.), Rethinking neural netwoks (pp. 161–198). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  90. Madary, M. (2014). Visual experience. In L. Shapiro (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of embodied cognition. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  91. Manzotti, R. (2008). A process-oriented view of qualia. In E. Wright (Ed.), The case for qualia (pp. 175–190). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Martin, M. (1995). Bodily awareness: A sense of ownership. In J. Bermudez, A. J. Marcel & N. Eilan (Eds.), The body and the self (pp. 267–290). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  93. Montague, M. (2009). The logic, intentionality, and phenomenology of emotion. Philosophical Studies, 145, 171–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Moore, G. E. (1903). The refutation of idealism. Mind, 12, 433–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nagel, T. (1974). What is it like to be a bat? The Philosophical Review, 83(4), 435–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nudds, M. (2004). The significance of the senses. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 104(1), 31–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nussbaum, M. (2001). Upheavals of thought: The intelligence of emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 242–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. O’Sullivan, B., & Schroer, R. (2012). Painful reasons: Representationalism as a theory of pain. The Philosophical Quartery, 62(249), 737–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pace, M. (2007). Blurred vision nd the transparency of experience. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 88, 3328–3354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pautz, A. (2010). A simple view of consciousness. In R. Koons & G. Bealer (Eds.), The waning of materialism (pp. 25–66). New York: Oxford UP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Perry, J. (1994). Intentionality. In S. Guttenplan (Ed.), A companion to the philosophy of mind. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  103. Pitt, D. (2004). The phenomenology of cognition or what is it like to think that P? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 69, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pouget, A., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1997). Spatial transformations in the parietal cortex using basis functions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscienc, 9(2), 222–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pribram, K. H. (1960). A review of theory in physiological psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 11, 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Price, C. (2006). Affect without objects: Moods and objectless emotions. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy, 2(1), 49–68.Google Scholar
  107. Prinz, J. (2004). Gut reactions: A perceptual theory of emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Pugmire, D. (1998). Rediscovering emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Reid, T. (1764/1872). An inquiry into the human mind. In Sir William Hamilton and Dugald Stewart (eds.), The works of Thomas Reid, D.D.: Now fully collected. Edinburgh: MacLaughlan and Stewart.Google Scholar
  110. Robbins, S. (2010). The case for qualia: A review. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 31, 141–156.Google Scholar
  111. Rogers, A. K. (1904). Rationality and belief. The Philosophical Review, 13(1), 30–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Russel, J. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110, 145–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Russell, B. (1948). Human knowledge: Its scope and limits. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  114. Ryle, G. (1949). The concept of mind. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  115. Salmela, M. (2011). Can emotion be modelled on perception? dialectica, 65, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schmitt, F. O., Parvati, D., & Smith, B. H. (1976). Electrotonic processing of information by brain cells. Science, 193, 114–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Searle, J. (1983). Intentionality. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Searle, J. (1992). The rediscovery of the mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  119. Sellars, W. (1956). Empiricism and the philosophy of mind. In H. Feigl & M. Scriven (Eds.), Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science, Vol. I: The foundations of science and the concepts of psychology and psychoanalysis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  120. Sellars, W. (1975). The structure of knowledge: (1) Perception; (2) minds; (3) epistemic principles. In H. Casteñeda (Ed.), Action knowledge and reality. Bobbs-Merrill: Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  121. Shepherd, G. M. (1972). The neuron doctrine: A revision of functional concepts. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 45, 584–599.Google Scholar
  122. Shepherd, G. M., & Koch, C. (1990). Introduction to synaptic circuits. The synaptic organization of the brain (pp. 3–31). New York: Oxford UP.Google Scholar
  123. Sherman, S. M., & Guillery, R. W. (1996). The functional organization of thalamocortical relays. Journal of Neurophysiology, 76, 1367–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shu, Y., Hasenstaub, A., Duque, A., Yu, Y., & McCormich, D. (2006). Modulation of intracortical synaptic potentials by presynaptic somatic membrane potential. Nature, 441(8), 761–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Siewert, C. (1998). The significance of consciousness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Solomon, R. (1993). The philosophy of emotions. In M. Lewis & J. Hamilsand (Eds.), Handbook of emotions. New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  127. Stitch, S. (1984). Is behaviorism vacuous? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 647–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stojar, D. (1996). Nominalism and intentionality. Nôus, 30, 161–181.Google Scholar
  129. Strawson, G. (1994). Mental reality (pp. 60–81). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  130. Stubenberg, L. (1998). Consciousness and qualia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Thau, M. (2002). Consciousness and cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Century.Google Scholar
  133. Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tye, M. (1995). Ten problems of consciousness. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  135. Tye, M. (2000). Consciousness, color, and content. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tye, M. (2002). Representationalism and the transparency of experience. Nôus, 36(1), 137–151.Google Scholar
  137. Tye, M. (2006). Another look at representationalism about pain. In M. Aydede (Ed.), Pain: New essays on its nature and the methodology of its stud (pp. 99–120). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  138. Van Gulick, R. (1993). Understanding the phenomenal mind: Are we all just armadillos? In M. Davies & G. W. Humphreys (Eds.), Consciousness: Psychological and philosophical essays (pp. 134–154). New York: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  139. Voltolini, A. (2013). The mark of the mental. Phenomenology and Mind, 4, 168–186.Google Scholar
  140. Ward, J. (1883). Psychological principles. Mind, 8(32), 465–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Weimer, W. (1976). Manifestatons of mind. In G. Globus (Ed.), Consciousness and the brain. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  142. Weiss, J. (2016). A feeling theory of feelings. Dissertation. Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  143. Whiting, D. (2009). The feeling theory of emotion and the object-directed emotions. The European Journal of Philosophy, 19(2), 281–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Whittaker, T. (1890). Volkmann’s psychology. (II.). Mind, 15(60), 489–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Williams, S. R. (2004). Spatial compartmentalization and functional impact of conductance in pyramidal neurons. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 961–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wittgenstein, L. (1974). Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  147. Wright, E. (2008). The case for qualia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Yuste, R. (2015). From the neuron doctrine to neural networks. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, 487–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations