On the epistemic costs of implicit bias
- 2.4k Downloads
Prologue: two apparently unrelated stories (don’t let the details distract you…)
Base rates and the CIA
During the Vietnam War, a fighter plane made a non-fatal strafing attack on a US aerial reconnaissance mission at twilight. Both Cambodian and Vietnamese jets operate in the area. You know the following facts:
Specific case information: The US pilot identified the fighter as...
KeywordsTrue Belief Stereotype Threat Implicit Association Test Implicit Association Automatic Association
For comments and conversation regarding early drafts, I am grateful to Richard Brooks, Jack Dovidio, Andy Egan, Jeffrey Fagan, David Hilbert, Richard Holton, Joshua Knobe, Tony Laden, Alex Madva, Jennifer Nagel, Aaron Norby, Jonathan Phillips, Richard Samuels, Eric Schwitzgebel, Susanna Siegel, Matthew Noah Smith and J.D. Trout. Thanks also to the members of John Bargh’s and Jack Dovidio’s labs (Fall 2009–Spring 2010), who introduced me to the bodies of psychological literature to which this paper makes appeal. I am immensely grateful to the audiences to whom I had a chance to present this material, including those at the Oberlin Colloquium in Epistemology (April 2010) and the Harvard/MIT “Belief and its Cousins” Mini-conference (January 2011), and at the Departments of Philosophy at Brown University (October 2010), Columbia University (February 2011), Northwestern University (March 2011), University of Illinois at Chicago Circle (March 2011) and the University of Pittsburgh (April 2011); I regret that I did not take notes in ways that allow me to acknowledge specific contributions in those settings, but they are manifold. Special thanks to my Yale Philosophy colleagues—including Facundo Alonso, George Bealer, Steve Darwall, Jay Elliot, Verity Harte, Shelly Kagan, David Possen, Barbara Sattler and Zoltán Gendler Szabó—for an incredibly helpful Faculty Lunch discussion in April 2011, and to Brendan Dill for a careful reading of the paper’s penultimate draft. My greatest thanks are reserved for my extraordinary research assistant, Takuya Sawaoka, for his tireless bibliographic work and numerous outstanding suggestions, both stylistic and substantive.
- Alcoff, L. M. (2006). Visible identities: Race, gender, and the self. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- Anderson, E. (2010). The imperative of integration. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Appiah, K. A., & Gutman, A. (1996). Color conscious: The political morality of race. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Ayres, I., Vars, F. E., Zakariya, N. (2004–2005). To insure prejudice: Racial disparities in taxicab tipping. Yale Law Journal, 114, 1613.Google Scholar
- Banaji, M. R. (2002). Stereotypes, social psychology of. In N. Smelser & P. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 15100–15104). New York, NY: Pergamon.Google Scholar
- Baruch, B. M. (1947). More production for peace. Vital Speeches of the Day, 13(14), 425.Google Scholar
- Blum, L. (2002). “I’m not a racist, but”.: The moral quandary of race. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Butler, D. M., & Broockman, D. E. (forthcoming). Do politicians racially discriminate against constituents? A field experiment on state legislators. American Journal of Political Science. Google Scholar
- Central Intelligence Agency. (2010). Games. https://www.cia.gov/kids-page/games/index.html. Accessed 28 April.
- Chudler, E. H. (n.d.). Colors, colors. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/words.html. Accessed 31 May 2011.
- Devine, P. G., & Sharp, L. B. (2009). Automatic and controlled processes in stereotyping and prejudice. In T. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination (pp. 61–82). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Digital History. (n.d.). http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/slavery/bibliographical_essay.html. Accessed 21 May 2011.
- Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2004). Aversive racism. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology: (Vol. 36, pp. 1–52). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Kawakami, K. (in press). Racism. In J. F. Dovidio, M. Hewstone, P. Glick, & V. M. Esses (Eds.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Drunk History. (n.d.). http://www.hbo.com/funny-or-die-presents/about/video/drunk-history.html. Accessed 31 May 2011.
- Franklin, J. H. (2005). Mirror to America: The autobiography of John Hope Franklin. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
- Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2000). Reducing intergroup bias: The common ingroup identity model. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Gendler, T. S. (2008a). Alief and belief. Journal of Philosophy, 105(10), 634–663.Google Scholar
- George Bernard Shaw. (n.d.). In Wikiquote. http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/George_Bernard_Shaw#Disputed. Accessed 31 May 2011.
- Graham, S. A., Kilbreath, C. S., & Welder, A. N. (2001). Words and shape similarity guide 13- month-olds’ inferences about nonobvious object properties. In J. D. Moore & K. Stenning (Eds.), Proceedings of the twenty-third annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 352–357). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Hamilton, D. L., & Sherman, J. W. (1994). Stereotypes. In R. S. Wyer Jr. & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1–68). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Hamilton, D. L., & Trolier, T. K. (1986). Stereotypes and stereotyping: An overview of the cognitive approach. In J. Dovidio & S. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 127–163). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Hess, T. M., Auman, C., Colcombe, S. J., & Rahhal, T. A. (2003). The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. Journal of Gerontology, 58(1), 3–11.Google Scholar
- Heuer, R. J. (1999). Psychology of intelligence analysis. Washington, DC: Center for Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency.Google Scholar
- IAT Corp. (1998). Project implicit. https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/. Accessed 31 May 2011.
- Jesse Jackson. (n.d.). In Wikiquote. http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Jesse_Jackson. Accessed 31 May 2011.
- Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1972). On prediction and judgment. Oregon Research Institute Research Bulletin, 12(4).Google Scholar
- Klinger, M., & Beall, P. (1992, May). Conscious and unconscious effects of stereotype activation. Paper Presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Kovel, J. (1970). White racism: A psychohistory. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, Random House.Google Scholar
- Kunda, Z. (1999). Social cognition: Making sense of people. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Leslie, S. J. (forthcoming). The original sin of cognition: Fear, prejudice, and generalization. The Journal of Philosophy. Google Scholar
- Lippman, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace.Google Scholar
- Lippman, W. (1947). The cold war: a study in US foreign policy. New York, NY: Harper.Google Scholar
- Medin, D. L. (1988). Social categorization: Structures, processes, and purposes. In R. Wyer & T. Srull (Eds.), Advances in social cognition: (Vol. 1, pp. 119–125). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Mills, C. W. (1997). The racial contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Myrdal, G. (1944). An American dilemma: The Negro problem and the modern democracy. New York, NY: Harper & Bros.Google Scholar
- Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). The implicit association test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of higher mental processes (pp. 265–292). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Oakes, P. J., & Turner, J. C. (1990). Is limited information processing capacity the cause of social stereotyping? In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 111–135). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Pious, S. (2002). Implicit association test. http://www.understandingprejudice.org/iat/. Accessed 31 May 2011.
- Rothstein, E. (2011). Suspended in space, 103 stories over Chicago. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/31/arts/design/willis-tower-suspends-visitors-above-chicago.html?_r=2&scp=2&sq=chicago&st=cse. Accessed 31 May 2011.
- Sangrigoli, S., Pallier, C., Argenti, A.-M., Ventureyra, V. A. G., & de Schonen, S. (2005). Reversibility of the other-race effect in face recognition during childhood. Psychological Science, 16(6), 440–444.Google Scholar
- Schneider, D. J. (2004). The psychology of stereotyping. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Shelby, T. (2005). We who are dark: The philosophical foundations of black solidarity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Stangor, C. (2009). The study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination within social psychology: A quick history of theory and research. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination (pp. 1–22). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Steele, C. M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi: And other clues to how stereotypes affect us (issues of our time). New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Co.Google Scholar
- Stroessner, S., Good, C., & Webster, L. (n.d.). http://reducingstereotypethreat.org. Accessed 21 May 2011.
- Sullivan, S. (2006). Revealing whiteness: The unconscious habits of racial privilege. Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN: University of Indiana Press.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Taylor, S. E. (1981). A categorization approach to stereotyping. In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 145–182). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- WebMD. (2010). Why breakfast is the most important meal of the day. http://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/most-important-meal. Accessed 27 May 2011.
- Zwicky, A. (2008). Wile away. http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=466. Accessed 31 May 2011.