Implementation of clinical pharmacist recommendations and services at a University Hospital in Yemen

  • Mohammed A. Kubas
  • Abdulsalam M. HalboupEmail author
Research Article


Background Studies have revealed that the inclusion of a clinical pharmacist as a member in multidisciplinary medical team has been associated with improved medication use, reduced adverse drug reaction, reduced cost of treatment, and improved health outcomes. Objective The objectives of this study were to evaluate the implementation of clinical pharmacy recommendations and services, the acceptance rate by the physicians, and the anticipated outcomes of the recommendations at a hospital in Yemen. Methods Different units of the University of Science and Technology Hospital, Sana’a were included in this study. All the recommendations and services provided by the clinical pharmacist during daily activities were documented between June 2013 and November 2015. The provided recommendations were classified based on the type, acceptance rate, and the anticipated outcomes. Main outcome measure Type and quality of clinical pharmacists’ recommendations, anticipated impact of the recommendations on health outcomes, and their acceptance rate. Results Throughout the study period, a total of 957 patients in different hospital units were visited and provided with a total of 3307 interventions and services. The most frequent types of clinical pharmacist’s interventions were drug discontinuation (23.6%, n = 782), inappropriate dose interval or time (n = 735, 22.2%), and add medication (18.9%, n = 626). Overall, 61.8% (n = 2044) of the provided recommendations were accepted by the physicians. The most anticipated outcomes were improved the effectiveness of therapy (45.1%, n = 1909), avoid adverse drug reactions (29%, n = 1228), and decrease the cost of medications (18.8%, n = 797). Conclusion Clinical pharmacist’s recommendations resulted in improving drug therapy and decreasing adverse effects for inpatients at the University of Science and Technology Hospital. This suggests that the implementation of clinical pharmacy services is essential and has a positive outcome on patient care.


Clinical pharmacy Clinical practice Drug-related problems Hospital units Patient care Pharmaceutical care Yemen 



The authors would like to express their special thanks for Prof Dr. Ross Tsuyuki for his guidance and review of our manuscript. We would also like to acknowledge UST pharmacy students 2016/2017 for their help with data collection.


No funding was obtained for this study.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Pharmacy DepartmentUniversity of Science and Technology HospitalSana’aYemen
  2. 2.Pharmacy Practice Department, Kulliyyah of PharmacyInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuantanMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of Science and TechnologySana’aYemen

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