Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 1519–1527 | Cite as

Evaluation of patient satisfaction and experience towards pharmacist-administered vaccination services in Western Australia

  • Sarah Burt
  • Laetitia Hattingh
  • Petra Czarniak
Research Article

Abstract

Background Pharmacist-administered vaccination services have been available in various countries for several years. In 2014, Western Australian (WA) legislation was introduced to allow pharmacist immunisers to administer the influenza vaccine to consumers 18 years and older. Objective To determine consumer satisfaction with pharmacist-administered influenza vaccination services in WA and identify factors associated with opinions to extend the service to include other vaccines. Setting Thirteen WA community pharmacies. Method In 2015, 133 pharmacies in WA offered pharmacist-administered influenza vaccinations. Of the 133 pharmacies, a purposive sample of 10% (13) were invited to participate in this 2016 study. Following vaccination, consumers were given a questionnaire and asked to evaluate the service and if they would support expansion of the service to include other vaccinations. Main outcome measure Consumer satisfaction with aspects of the service using a 5-point Likert scale. Results A total of 434 (66.8%) questionnaires were completed at the 13 pharmacies and returned. The majority of consumers (99.5%) were satisfied with the service overall, and 97.2% advised they would receive a vaccination from a community pharmacist in the future. Over 60% would like vaccinations to expand to other conditions. Women and those who would again have their influenza vaccine from the pharmacist were particularly supportive of this expansion. Conclusion Consumer satisfaction with pharmacist-administered vaccinations was high. Consumers found the service convenient, comfortable and professional. The majority of respondents supported expansion of pharmacist-administered vaccination services to a wider range of vaccines.

Keywords

Community pharmacy Influenza Pharmacist Vaccination Western Australia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the community pharmacy managers/proprietors, pharmacist-immunisers and consumers for participating in the study. We acknowledge Dr Richard Parsons at Curtin University for his assistance in data analysis and statistics.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest with regard to the study or the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organisation (WHO) Fact Sheet: Influenza (seasonal) November 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs211/en/. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  2. 2.
    Dey AKS, Wang H, Beard FH, McIntyre PB. Summary of national surveillance data on vaccine preventable diseases in Australia, 2008–2011. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2016;40(Suppl):S1–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Newall A, Scuffham P, Hodgkinson B. Economic Report into the Cost of Infuenza to the Australian Health System. Report to the Infuenza Specialist Group; 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hogue MDGJ, Foster SL, Rothholz MC. Pharmacist involvement with immunizations: a decade of professional advancement. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2006;46(2):168–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Traynor K. With Maine on board, pharmacists in all 50 states can vaccinate: H1N1 prompts emergency vaccination rules for pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009;66(21):1892–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Skiles MP, Cai J, English A, Ford CA. Retail pharmacies and adolescent vaccination—an exploration of current issues. J Adoles Health. 2011;48(6):630–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taitel M, Cohen E, Duncan I, Pegus C. Pharmacists as providers: targeting pneumococcal vaccinations to high risk populations. Vaccine. 2011;29(45):8073–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Westrick SC, Watcharadamrongkun S, Mount JK, Breland ML. Community pharmacy involvement in vaccine distribution and administration. Vaccine. 2009;27(21):2858–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brewer NT, Chung JK, Baker HM, Rothholz MC, Smith JS. Pharmacist authority to provide HPV vaccine: novel partners in cervical cancer prevention. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;132(Supplement 1):S3–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horta MCS, Mendes T, Mendes Z, Santos C. Immunization delivery: a new service provided in Portuguese pharmacies. Part II: First Nationwide Influenza Immunization Campaign. FIP Congress; Istanbul, Turkey; 2009.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baker S. An evaluation of the free influenza vaccination program. Auckland Ministry of Health. http://www.moh.govt.nz/NoteBook/nbbooks.nsf/0/EB8A5E402234FB8BCC257B43006BF844?opendocument (2001). Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  12. 12.
    Ministy of Health: Immunisation handbook. Wellington Ministry of Health. https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/immunisation-handbook-2017-may17-v3.pdf (2017). Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  13. 13.
    Statistics Canada. Influenza immunization, less than one year ago by sex, by province and territory. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/health102b-eng.htm. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  14. 14.
    NICE. Patient Group Directions—Medicines practice guidelines. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/mpg2/resources/patient-group-directions-1779401941189 (2013). Accessed 1 Mar2018.
  15. 15.
    Anderson C, Thornley T. Who uses pharmacy for flu vaccinations? Population profiling through a UK pharmacy chain. Int J Clin Pharm. 2016;38(2):218–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McConeghy KW, Wing C. A national examination of pharmacy-based immunization statutes and their association with influenza vaccinations and preventive health. Vaccine. 2016;34(30):3463–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Warner JG, Portlock J, Smith J, Rutter P. Increasing seasonal influenza vaccination uptake using community pharmacies: experience from the Isle of Wight, England. Int J Pharm Pract. 2013;21(6):362–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anderson C, Thornley T. “It’s easier in pharmacy”: why some patients prefer to pay for flu jabs rather than use the National Health Service. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14:35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ernst ME, Bergus GR, Sorofman BA. Patients’ acceptance of traditional and nontraditional immunization providers. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001;41(1):53–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grabenstein JD, Guess HA, Hartzema AG. People vaccinated by pharmacists: descriptive epidemiology. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001;41(1):46–52.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hook S, Windle J. Community pharmacy influenza immunisation increases vaccine uptake and gains public approval. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2013;37(5):489–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Papastergiou J, Folkins C, Li W, Zervas J. Community pharmacist-administered influenza immunization improves patient access to vaccination. Can Pharm J. 2014;147(6):359–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poulose S, Cheriyan E, Cheriyan R, Weeratunga D, Adham M. Pharmacist-administered influenza vaccine in a community pharmacy: a patient experience survey. Can Pharm J. 2015;148(2):64–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marty S. Vaccination: pharmacy board of Australia 2013. http://www.pharmacyboard.gov.au/News/Newsletters/March-2014.aspx#vaccination. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  25. 25.
    Lau E, Campbell C, Glass BD, Drovandi A, Nissen LM. Australia’s first pharmacist immunisation pilot—who did pharmacists inject? In: APSA conference; Brisbane 2014.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Media Release: Pharmacy immunisation trial broadened [press release]. http://statements.qld.gov.au/Statement/2014/7/9/pharmacy-immunisation-trial-broadened (2014). Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  27. 27.
    Government of Western Australia: Pharmacist vaccination code. In: Health DO, editor. www.healthywa.wa.gov.au/~/media/Files/…/Pharmacist_vaccination_code.ashx (2014) Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  28. 28.
    Hattingh H, Sim TF, Parsons R, Czarniak P, Vickery A, Ayadurai S. Evaluation of the first pharmacist administered vaccinations in Western Australia: a mixed methods study. BMJ Open. 2016;6(9):0011948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Controlled Substances (Poisons) Regulations 2011. South Australia. Version 1.4.2017. https://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/LZ/C/R/CONTROLLED%20SUBSTANCES%20(POISONS)%20REGULATIONS%202011/CURRENT/2011.140.AUTH.PDF. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  30. 30.
    Health Department of Northern Territory. Northern Territory Pharmacist-Led Immunisation Pilot. In: Health DO, editor. Australia: Health Department of NT; 2015.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    The Pharmacy Guild of Australia. Vaccination Services. https://www.guild.org.au/programs/vaccination-services (2017). Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  32. 32.
    Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. 5th ed. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon; 2007.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Friendlies Pharmacy. Flu vaccination—book a flu shot today [cited 30 Sept 2018]. https://www.friendliespharmacies.com.au/services/flu-vaccination-2018 (2018).
  34. 34.
    Australian Government: Department of Health. National Immunisation Program. Australian Government [cited 30 Sept 2018]. https://beta.health.gov.au/health-topics/immunisation/immunisation-throughout-life/national-immunisation-program-schedule (2018).
  35. 35.
    World Health Organization. The world health report 2008: primary health care: now more than ever. Lerberghe WV, editor. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brown TJ, Todd A, O’Malley C, Moore HJ, Husband AK, Bambra C, et al. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation. BMJ Open. 2016;6(2):e009828.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yarwood J, Noakes K, Kennedy D, Campbell H, Salisbury D. Tracking mothers attitudes to childhood immunization 1991–2001. Vaccine. 2005;1:23(48–49):5670–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Berry NJ, Henry A, Danchin M, Trevena LJ, Willaby HW, Leask J. When parents won’t vaccinate their children: a qualitative investigation of Australian primary care providers’ experience. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17(1):19.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-017-0783-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Healthy communities: immunisation rates for children in 2015–2016 (in focus). Cat. No HPF4. Canberra: AIHW; 2017.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Pharmacy and Biomedical SciencesCurtin UniversityBentleyAustralia
  2. 2.School of PharmacyGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

Personalised recommendations