International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1209–1216 | Cite as

Evaluation of the impact of pharmacist-led medication reconciliation intervention: a single centre pre–post study from Ethiopia

  • Alemayehu B. MekonnenEmail author
  • Andrew J. McLachlan
  • Jo-anne E. Brien
  • Desalew Mekonnen
  • Zenahbezu Abay
Research Article


Background The role of pharmacists in medication reconciliation (MedRec) is highly acknowledged in many developed nations. However, the impact of this strategy has not been well researched in low-and-middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pharmacist-led MedRec intervention on the incidence of unintentional medication discrepancies in Ethiopia. Setting Emergency department in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Method A single centre, prospective, pre-post study was conducted on adults (aged 18 years or over) that had been hospitalized for at least 24 h and were taking at least 2 home medications on admission. The intervention involved assignment of a pharmacist to an emergency care team so as to take the best possible medication history and reconcile this list with the current medications in use. Main outcome measure Incidence and potential clinical severity of unintentional medication discrepancies. Results 123 patients were included (pre-intervention, 49; post-intervention, 74). The proportion of patients with at least one unintended discrepancy was reduced from 59 to 10.5% after the intervention (p < 0.001). Similarly, the percentage of patients with potentially severe clinical impact medication discrepancies reduced significantly after the intervention (p < 0.01). Most importantly, the likelihood of occurrence of unintentional medication discrepancies was approximately 17 times more often in the absence of pharmacist intervention (OR 16.45, 95% CI 5.22, 51.85). Conclusion This study has found that pharmacist-led MedRec intervention was impactful, and it was able to minimize the incidence of unintentional medication discrepancies significantly.


Ethiopia Medication reconciliation Medication safety Medication errors Pharmacists 



The authors would like to thank the pharmacists Abaynesh Fentahun, Melka Abdisa, Tamerat Befekadu for their help for the collection and categorization of data, all staffs at the emergency ward and the pharmacist (Feser Dula) who was member of the emergency ward team. The contribution of Misganaw Semagn, focal personnel for drug information service, is highly acknowledged. The technical support from the clinical director of Gondar University Hospital, and other departments (Internal medicine and Hospital pharmacy) are gratefully acknowledged. Alemayehu B Mekonnen gratefully acknowledge funding to support his Ph.D. training provided by The University of Sydney International Students’ Scholarship.


This study was partly funded by the University of Sydney through the Postgraduate Research Support Scheme (PRSS).

Conflicts of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11096_2018_722_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)
11096_2018_722_MOESM2_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 16 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PharmacyThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Education and Research on AgeingConcord HospitalSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.St Vincent’s Hospital Clinical School, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  5. 5.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of GondarGondarEthiopia

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