International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 474–479 | Cite as

Collaborative practice agreement in solid organ transplantation

  • Bharath R. RavichandranEmail author
  • Matthew W. Gillespie
  • Tracy M. Sparkes
  • Carla Williams
  • Stephen T. Bartlett
  • Abdolreza Haririan
  • Brian M. Masters
Research Article


Background Given the complexity of solid organ transplant recipients, a multidisciplinary approach is required. To promote medication safety and enable providers to focus on the medical and surgical needs of these patients, our department of pharmacy created a collaborative practice agreement between physicians and pharmacists. Through this agreement, credentialed pharmacists are empowered to provide inpatient services including initiation and adjustment of medications through independent review of laboratory results after multidisciplinary rounds. Objective To evaluate the effect of our collaborative practice agreement on clinical care and institutional finances. Setting An inpatient setting at a large academic medical center. Methods Three transplant pharmacists entered all clinical interventions made on abdominal transplant recipients between September and October 2013 into Quantifi®, a software application that categorizes and assigns a cost savings value based on impact and type of intervention. Main outcome measure The main outcome measures in this study were number and categorization of interventions, as well as estimated cost savings to the institution. Results There were 1060 interventions recorded, an average of 20 interventions per pharmacist per day. The most common interventions were pharmacokinetic evaluations (36%) and dose adjustments (19%). Over the time period, these interventions translated into an estimated savings of $107,634.00, or an annual cost savings of $373,131.20 per pharmacist, or a cost–benefit ratio of 2.65 to the institution. Conclusions Based on our study, implementation of a collaborative practice agreement enables credentialed pharmacists to make clinically and financially meaningful interventions in a complex patient population.


Clinical practice Collaborative practice Immunosuppression Solid organ transplant United States 



There was no outside funding received for the purposes of this study.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bharath R. Ravichandran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthew W. Gillespie
    • 1
  • Tracy M. Sparkes
    • 1
  • Carla Williams
    • 1
  • Stephen T. Bartlett
    • 1
  • Abdolreza Haririan
    • 1
  • Brian M. Masters
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Maryland Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA

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