International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 345–353 | Cite as

Efficacy of a telephone-based intervention among patients with type-2 diabetes; a randomized controlled trial in pharmacy practice

  • Amir Sarayani
  • Mojgan Mashayekhi
  • Marzieh Nosrati
  • Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani
  • Mohammadreza Javadi
  • Navid Saadat
  • Sheyda Najafi
  • Kheirollah GholamiEmail author
Research Article


Background Pharmacists’ interventions to improve outcomes of diabetes management have been promising. However, evidence on using telephone-based interventions in pharmacy practice are limited, particularly in developing countries. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a telephone-based intervention to improve care and clinical outcomes in type-2 diabetes. Setting A referral community pharmacy and drug information center. Method We conducted a two-armed randomized controlled trial on 100 patients with type-2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of 16 telephone calls in 3 month by a trained pharmacist working in an academic drug information center, while the control group received usual care. Before random allocation, patients attended a live education session delivered by pharmacists to learn the basics of diabetes care and to confirm the eligibility criteria. Assessments were performed at baseline, month-3 (after intervention), and month-9 (follow-up). Main outcome measure Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Results Eighty four patient completed the trial. Baseline variables were comparable between the two groups and the baseline value of hemoglobin A1c was 8.00 ± 1.44 in the study population. HbA1c was significantly improved in both groups at month-3 (6.97 ± 1.41 vs. 7.09 ± 1.78) and remained steady at month-9 (6.96 ± 1.44 vs. 7.26 ± 1.85). Lipid profile showed small improvements in the intervention group but was not significant. The adherence score and self-care score improvement was significantly higher in the intervention group at month-3 and were maintained at month-9. Conclusion Medication adherence and self-care significantly improved in the telephone-based intervention group. However, the improvement of clinical outcomes might have been diluted due to the live diabetes education session.


Diabetes education Diabetes Type-2 HbA1c Iran Medication adherence Pharmacist Self-care Telephone counseling 



We would like to thank Dr. Kazem Heydari for his help in data analysis and Ms. Saba Afjei for coordinating the recruitment process, the educational sessions, and laboratory test schedule. We also appreciate Brianna Costales’ assistance preparing the final revision of the manuscript.


This study was supported by a research grant from Research Deputy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (ID: 91-03-156-19496).

Conflicts of interests

We have no conflicts of financial interest to declare. The study was conducted by a team of community pharmacists and clinical pharmacists.

Supplementary material

11096_2018_593_MOESM1_ESM.doc (218 kb)
Consortchecklist (DOC 218 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amir Sarayani
    • 1
    • 5
  • Mojgan Mashayekhi
    • 2
  • Marzieh Nosrati
    • 2
  • Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani
    • 3
  • Mohammadreza Javadi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Navid Saadat
    • 4
  • Sheyda Najafi
    • 2
  • Kheirollah Gholami
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for Rational Use of DrugsTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Community Pharmacies, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine SciencesShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and PolicyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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