Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1219–1229 | Cite as

Perceived needs of pharmaceutical care services among healthcare professionals in South Korea: a qualitative study

  • Iyn-Hyang Lee
  • Sandy Jeong Rhie
  • Nam Kyung Je
  • Ki Yon Rhew
  • Eunhee Ji
  • Jung Mi Oh
  • Euni LeeEmail author
  • Jeong-Hyun YoonEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Purpose To explore the need for pharmaceutical care services, key features of desirable pharmacy services, and perceived barriers for advancing the services in hospital environments with doctors and nurses who are key co-workers of the interdisciplinary team care services.Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with eighteen doctors and fifteen nurses employing purposive and snowballing sampling strategies were conducted in ten hospitals in South Korea. Results The level of pharmaceutical care was varied across regions or institutions in South Korea. The concept of pharmaceutical care was insufficiently defined, and tended to be limited to some parts of medication counseling. Through pharmaceutical care services, doctors desired to acquire comprehensive drug information from and to share clinical responsibilities with pharmacists. Nurses wished to lower their burdens of medication counseling services from their daily practices. Doctors and nurses asked for pharmacists providing essential and carefully selected medication information to their patients in a patient-centered manner. The listed barriers to pharmaceutical care included the lack of appropriate systems for reward, insufficient accessibility to patient records by pharmacists, ambiguous role descriptions of pharmacist, and absence of effective communication among professionals. Conclusion A successful pharmaceutical care service model should allow efficient exchange of information among healthcare professionals to build inter-professional trust and to provide a continuity of care both in terms of time and setting. As prerequisites of such system, it was warranted to develop clinical evidence and an appropriate reward system for pharmaceutical care services.

Keywords

In-depth interview Interdisciplinary team Pharmaceutical care Qualitative study South Korea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank researchers and pharmacists from the Drug Treatment Evaluation and Management (DrugTEAM) Group, including Kyung Im Kim, Bae Min Kyung, Nayoung Han, Heejin Na, Hyuneun Chu, Jaehyun Kim, Ji Eun Kang, Joowon Chung, Kyung Sook Choi, Minji Sohn, and Seung Hee Han, and all interviewees for their priceless contributions. We also thank Dayoung Lee, College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University for translating raw data from Korean to English.

Funding

This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant Number: HI13C0731).

Conflicts of interests

None of the authors have any potential conflicts of interest concerning this work. The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the KHIDI.

References

  1. 1.
    Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(3):533–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Pharm Educ. 1989;53:7S–15S.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zellmer WA. The future of health-system pharmacy: opportunities and challenges in practice model change. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46(4):S41–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Awad A, Al-Ebrahim S, Abahussain E. Pharmaceutical care services in hospitals of Kuwait. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9(2):149–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang M, Cho E, Noh H, Lee J. Studies on the perception on clinical pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmaceutical sciences. Korean J Clin Pharm. 2014;24(3):169–82.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunlop J, Shaw J. Community pharmacists’ perspectives on pharmaceutical care implementation in New Zealand. Pharm World Sci. 2002;24(6):224–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fang Y, Yang S, Zhou S, Jiang M, Liu J. Community pharmacy practice in China: past, present and future. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35(4):520–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee J, Sohn H, Shin H. Quality evaluation of medication counseling in Korean community pharmacies. Korean J Clin Pharm. 2009;19(2):131–42.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Montgomery AT, Kalvemark-Sporrong S, Henning M, Tully MP, Kettis-Lindblad A. Implementation of a pharmaceutical care service: prescriptionists’, pharmacists’ and doctors’ views. Pharm World Sci. 2007;29(6):593–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olsson E, Tuyet LT, Nguyen HA, Stalsby Lundborg C. Health professionals’ and consumers’ views on the role of the pharmacy personnel and the pharmacy service in Hanoi, Vietnam–a qualitative study. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2002;27(4):273–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rossing C, Hansen EH, Krass I, Traulsen JM. Pharmaceutical care in Denmark: perceived importance of medicine-related problems and participation in postgraduate training. Pharm World Sci. 2003;25(2):73–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roberts AS, Benrimoj SI, Chen TF, Williams KA, Hopp TR, Aslani P. Understanding practice change in community pharmacy: a qualitative study in Australia. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2005;1(4):546–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Suh DC, Kang H-Y, Kwon JW, Kim SJ, Suh HS, Lee S, et al. Institutionalization of cognitive services in hopital pharmacy. Seoul: Korean Association of Pharmacy Education; 2013.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Westerlund LT, Björk HT. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40(6):1162–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williams M, Peterson GM, Tenni PC, Bindoff IK, Stafford AC. DOCUMENT: a system for classifying drug-related problems in community pharmacy. Int J Clin Pharm. 2012;34(1):43–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barnett MJ, Frank J, Wehring H, Newland B, VonMuenster S, Kumbera P, et al. Analysis of pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services in community pharmacies over 7 years. J Manag Care Pharm. 2009;15(1):18–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bogden PE, Abbott RD, Williamson P, Onopa JK, Koontz LM. Comparing standard care with a physician and pharmacist team approach for uncontrolled hypertension. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13(11):740–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chisholm-Burns MA, Kim Lee J, Spivey CA, Slack M, Herrier RN, Hall-Lipsy E, et al. US pharmacists’ effect as team members on patient care: systematic review and meta-analyses. Med Care. 2010;48(10):923–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dunn SP, Birtcher KK, Beavers CJ, Baker WL, Brouse SD, Page RL 2nd, et al. The role of the clinical pharmacist in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(19):2129–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hanlon JT, Weinberger M, Samsa GP, Schmader KE, Uttech KM, Lewis IK, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a clinical pharmacist intervention to improve inappropriate prescribing in elderly outpatients with polypharmacy. Am J Med. 1996;100(4):428–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perez A, Doloresco F, Hoffman JM, Meek PD, Touchette DR, Vermeulen LC, et al. ACCP: economic evaluations of clinical pharmacy services: 2001-2005. Pharmacotherapy. 2009;29(1):128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shah M, Norwood CA, Farias S, Ibrahim S, Chong PH, Fogelfeld L. Diabetes transitional care from inpatient to outpatient setting: pharmacist discharge counseling. J Pharm Pract. 2013;26(2):120–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    American Pharmacist Association. The pursuit of provider status. What pharmacists need to know 2013. www.pharmacist.com. Accessed 4 Jan 2016.
  24. 24.
    Bae H, Hahn J, Lee YH, Kim H, Lee HS, S-h Lee, et al. Polypharmacy in patients discharged from oncology department. Korean J Clin Pharm. 2013;23(1):42–8.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Han S, Lee G, Han N, Oh JM, editors. Analysis of drug related problems and evaluation of clinical pharmacist’s intervention on chronic kidney disease patients. 2014 ACCP Annual Meeting; 2014; Austin, Taxas: Pharmacotherapy.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shin EJ, Ha HJ, Shin WG, Park KJ. Analysis of drug use reviews in pediatric inpatients. Korean J Clin Pharm. 2005;15(1):27–33.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Choi J, Choi K, Lee K, Rhie S. Initiation of pharmaceutical care service in medical intensive care unit with drug interaction monitoring program. Korean J Clin Pharm. 2015;25(3):138–44.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    An S, Bang J, La H-O. Early-stage diagnosis of bladder carcinoma by a clinical pharmacist’s effective anti-coagulation service in a patient with anticoagulants. Korean J Clin Pharm. 2010;20(1):85–7.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brock KA, Doucette WR. Collaborative working relationships between pharmacists and physicians: an exploratory study. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2004;44(3):358–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee I-H. National Health Insurance and pharmacy. In: Social Pharmacy Committee in Korean Association of Pharmacy Education, editor. Administrative and managerial pharmacy. Seoul: PanMun Education; 2013. p. 233–65. ISBN 978-89-97140-93-0.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sohn H, Kim S-O, Joo K-M, Park H, Han E, Ahn HT, et al. Pharmacists’ perceptions of barriers to providing appropriate pharmaceutical services in community pharmacies. Korean J Clin Pharm. 2015;25(2):94–101.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Centers for disease control and prevention. current status of chronic diseases and issues in Korea. Chronic disease Factbook Seoul: Centers for disease control and prevention; 2015. www.cdc.go.kr. Accessed 23 Dec 2015.
  33. 33.
    Cooney D, Moon H, Liu Y, Miller RT, Perzynski A, Watts B, et al. A pharmacist based intervention to improve the care of patients with CKD: a pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial. BMC Nephrol. 2015;16(56):15–52.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cranor CW, Christensen DB. The Asheville Project: short-term outcomes of a community pharmacy diabetes care program. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;52(6):838–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Johns TS, Yee J, Smith-Jules T, Campbell RC, Bauer C. Interdisciplinary care clinics in chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol. 2015;16(161):15–158.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, Ashok M, Blalock SJ, Wines RC, et al. Interventions to improve adherence to self-administered medications for chronic diseases in the United States: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(11):785–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Surveys Denscombe M. The good research guide for small-scale social research projects. 3rd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press; 2007. p. 1–34. ISBN 978-033522022-9.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Guest G, Bunce A, Johnson L. How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods. 2006;18(1):59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pope C, Ziebland S, Mays N. Analysing qualitative data. In: Pope C, Mays N, editors. Qualitative research in health care. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2006. p. 63–81. ISBN 1-4051-3512-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ritchie J, Spencer L. Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. In: Bryman A, Burgess RG, editors. Analysing qualitative data. London: Routledge; 1994. p. 173–94. ISBN 0-415-06063-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    OECD. Health at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators, Korean. OECD Korea Policy Centre; 2013.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Korean Nurses Association. Nursing statistics: Korean Nurses Association; 2015. http://www.koreanurse.or.kr/resources/statistics.php. Accessed 21 Jan 2016.
  43. 43.
    Ranelli PL, Biss J. Physicians’ perceptions of communication with and responsibilities of pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40(5):625–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith WE, Ray MD, Shannon DM. Physicians’ expectations of pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002;59(1):50–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2008- primary health care. http://www.who.int/whr/2008/en/. Accessed 27 Jun 2016.
  46. 46.
    Tan EC, Stewart K, Elliott RA, George J. Integration of pharmacists into general practice clinics in Australia: the views of general practitioners and pharmacists. Int J Pharm Pract. 2014;22(1):28–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McPherson K, Headrick L, Moss F. Working and learning together: good quality care depends on it, but how can we achieve it. Qual Health Care. 2001;10((Suppl 2)):ii46–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Taylor SP, Ledford R, Palmer V, Abel E. We need to talk: an observational study of the impact of electronic medical record implementation on hospital communication. BMJ Qual Saf. 2014;23(7):584–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Boockvar K, Fishman E, Kyriacou CK, Monias A, Gavi S, Cortes T. Adverse events due to discontinuations in drug use and dose changes in patients transferred between acute and long-term care facilities. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(5):545–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Department of Health. Design for patient safety. London: Department of Health Publications; 2003. p. 50.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beardsley RS, Kimberlin CL, Tindall WN. Patient-centered communication in pharmacy practice. Communication skills in pharmacy practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. p. 1–13. ISBN 978-1-60831-602-1.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Britten N, editor. Qualitative interviews. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2006. ISBN 1-4051-3512-3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iyn-Hyang Lee
    • 1
  • Sandy Jeong Rhie
    • 2
  • Nam Kyung Je
    • 3
  • Ki Yon Rhew
    • 4
  • Eunhee Ji
    • 5
  • Jung Mi Oh
    • 6
  • Euni Lee
    • 6
    Email author
  • Jeong-Hyun Yoon
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.College of PharmacyYeungnam UniversityGyeongsanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.College of PharmacyEwha Womans UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.College of PharmacyPusan National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.College of PharmacyDongduk Women’s UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.College of PharmacyGachon UniversityIncheonRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.College of PharmacySeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations