Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 899–907 | Cite as

Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand

  • Wiwat ArkaravichienEmail author
  • Apichaya Wongpratat
  • Sunee Lertsinudom
Research Article

Abstract

Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain’s assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain’s assessable scores were close to domain’s possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.

Keywords

Accreditation Community pharmacy Quality indicator Thailand 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the pharmacists for their interviews and their permission for data collection in their pharmacies. Special thanks are given to Dr. Jeff Johns and Dr. Glenn Borlace, Khon Kaen University, for English editing of this manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by grants from the Graduate School and the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University.

Conflicts of interest

We declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Lawrence M, Olesen F. Indicators of quality in health care. Eur J Gen Pract. 1997;3:103–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mainz J. Defining and classifying clinical indicators for quality improvement. Int J Qual Health Care. 2003;15:523–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nau DP. Measuring pharmacy quality. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2009;49:154–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Trap B, Todd CH, Moore H, Laing R. The impact of supervision on stock management and adherence to treatment guidelines: a randomized controlled trial. Health Policy Plan. 2001;16:273–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vuk T. Quality indicators: a tool for quality monitoring and improvement. ISBT Sci Ser. 2012;7:24–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rubin HR, Pronovost P, Diette GB. From a process of care to a measure: the development and testing of a quality indicator. Int J Qual Health Care. 2001;13:489–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campbell SM, Braspenning J, Hutchinson A, Marshall MN. Research methods used in developing and applying quality indicators in primary care. BMJ. 2003;326:816–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kötter T, Blozik E, Scherer M. Methods for the guideline-based development of quality indicators: a systematic review. Implementation Sci. [Internet] 2012 [cited 2015 Sep 15]; 7:21. http://www.implementationscience.com/content/7/1/21.
  9. 9.
    Pharmacy Accreditation. Standard of Accredited Pharmacy [Internet] [cited 2015 Sep 15]. http://newsser.fda.moph.go.th/advancepharmacy/2009/.
  10. 10.
    FIP annual report 2007–2008. Advancing pharmacy and science to the benefit of the patient [Internet] [cited 2015 Sep 15]. https://www.fip.org/files/fip/publications/FIP-AR-2007-8.pdf.
  11. 11.
    A report on good pharmacy practice outreach project of FIP in Thailand [Internet] [cited 2015 Sep 15]. http://www.searpharm.org/#!promoting-gpp/c1avf.
  12. 12.
    Tromp TFJ. GPP programme with the patient in focus [Internet] [cited 2015 Sep 15]. http://www.europharmforum.org/file/15970.
  13. 13.
    Teräsalmi E. Thai GPP quality indicator workshop 2010 [Internet] [cited 2015 Sep 15]. http://www.pharcpa.com/oldweb/document/new%20gpp%20document.pdf.
  14. 14.
    Wongpratat A, Arkaravichien W, Lertsinudom S. Quality of service determined by the Community Pharmacy Association’s quality indicators between accredited and non-accredited pharmacies in the north-eastern part of Thailand. Isan J Pharm Sci. 2015;11:99–102 (Thai).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand). Quality indicators [Internet] [cited 2016 Jan 10]. http://www.pharcpa.com/files/20120422_GPP_Quality_Indicator.doc.
  16. 16.
    De Bie J, Kijlstra NB, Daemen BJG, Bouvy ML. The development of quality indicators for community pharmacy care. BMJ Qual Saf. 2011;20:666–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    The Pharmacy Guild of Australia. QCPP requirements: quality care pharmacy standard-quality management system for pharmacies in Australia. 2011th edn. Quality Care Pharmacy Programme; 2011. p. 30–37.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Center for pharmacy practice accreditation. Community pharmacy practice standards [Internet] March 1, 2013 [cited 15 Sep 15]. http://www.pharmacypracticeaccredit.com608-444-7847.
  19. 19.
    Smith F. The quality of private pharmacy services in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31:351–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trap B, Hansen EH, Trap R, Kahsay A, Simoyi T, Oteba MO, et al. A new indicator based tool for assessing and reporting on good pharmacy practice. South Med Rev. 2010;3:4–11.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koley M, Saha S, Ghosh S, Nag G, Kundo M, Mondal R, et al. A validation study of homeopathic prescribing and patient care indicators. J Tradit Complement Med. [Internet]. 2014 [cited 15 Sep 15];4:289–92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4220510/.
  22. 22.
    Viboonsunti C, Keawpinta P, Sornbial M, Chadchuchaitip E. Comparison of the management between independent and chain drugstores in municipal area, Muang district, Chiang Mai Province. Thai J Pharm Sci. 2005;29:59–68 (Thai).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wiwat Arkaravichien
    • 1
    Email author
  • Apichaya Wongpratat
    • 1
  • Sunee Lertsinudom
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

Personalised recommendations