Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 271–279 | Cite as

Clinical and conventional pharmacy services in Polish hospitals: a national survey

  • Iga PawłowskaEmail author
  • Leszek Pawłowski
  • Ivan Kocić
  • Natalia Krzyżaniak
Open Access
Research Article

Abstract

Background Pharmacist-led care services within the hospital pharmacy setting have a significant impact on efficient drug management processes. The work of pharmacists is directly associated with the provision of drugs and medical supplies along with additional clinical, administrative, organizational and educational duties. Depending on the country, these practice roles may differ to a significant extent. Objective The aim of this research was to explore the role of the hospital pharmacist and the provision of both clinical and traditional pharmaceutical services for patients and medical staff in Polish general hospitals. Setting Hospital pharmacies from all general hospitals in Poland. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted, utilizing an anonymous questionnaire as the research instrument. Heads of hospital pharmacies were requested to participate in this study and complete the questionnaire. The survey was initially piloted to improve the research method. Main outcome measure The types of pharmaceutical services performed in Polish general hospitals. Results 166 hospital pharmacies took part in this survey. The overall response rate was 60.8 %. The total number of full-time equivalent (FTE) professionals employed within the surveyed hospital pharmacies was approximately 833. The procurement and distribution of drugs were identified as pharmaceutical services performed by most of the participants. The significant majority of pharmacists were also involved in compounding, adverse drug reaction monitoring and rational drug management services. Eleven (7 %) of the responding pharmacists had direct contact with patients and 7 (4 %) pharmacists took part in ward rounds. More precise legal regulations regarding hospital pharmacy practice were measures indicated by most pharmacists as necessary changes required in the hospital pharmacy system. Conclusion Polish hospital pharmacists provide various pharmaceutical services. Their work is closely related with direct provision of drugs. There is an observed inadequate level of clinical services provided in comparison to clinical settings in other countries.

Keywords

Clinical pharmacy Clinical services Conventional services Hospital pharmacy Pharmaceutical services Pharmacist Poland 

Impact on practice

  • The majority of the pharmaceutical services provided by hospitals pharmacists are directly associated with medicines, their production, procurement, distribution and storage.

  • In comparison to other countries, patient oriented pharmaceutical services are not a common practice within Polish general hospitals.

  • More precise legal regulations and an increase in staffing levels within the pharmacy may improve the quality of services in Polish hospital pharmacy.

Introduction

Pharmacist-led care services within the hospital pharmacy setting have a significant impact on efficient drug management processes. According to the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists (EAHP), the fundamental role of the hospital pharmacy service is to “optimize patient outcomes, by collaboratively working within multidisciplinary teams in order to achieve responsible use of medicines” [1]. In order to promote quality patient care, a hospital pharmacist’s role comprises of the provision of both clinical pharmacy services and conventional pharmacy services i.e. the dispensing and production of medicines [2]. According to the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy, the clinical pharmacist is responsible for performing activities focusing on the promotion of rational and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices [3]. However, depending on the country, the extent to which these listed roles are performed in practice may differ. For example, clinical services are more commonly performed in the US than in Europe. In Europe, only 6 % of pharmacists carry out services on wards for a minimum of 50 % of their total work time, whilst in the US 34 % of hospital pharmacists spend more than 8 h per day on the ward. Differences are also observed between particular countries in Europe; in the UK, Ireland and Norway clinical pharmacy practice is highly developed in comparison to their counterparts in Eastern Europe [4]. Evidence from other countries confirms that clinical pharmacy services performed within the following units: intensive care [5, 6], geriatric [7], oncology [8], internal medicine [8, 10], pediatrics [11], surgery [12, 13], cardiology [14] and palliative care [15], are beneficial for patients, hospital staff and the health care system. Pharmacists are also essentially involved in the detection and prevention of harmful medication errors [16, 17, 18, 19, 20] and drug related-problems, including adverse drug reactions [21, 22, 23]. Gerdemann et al. in their pilot study demonstrated that the presence of pharmacy interns on the ward increased drug safety by detecting potential prescribing and documentation errors (e.g. inappropriate drug or its dosage, drugs interactions) as well as improving drug storage conditions on the ward. Furthermore, the interns ward attendance and recommendations resulted in a high rate of acceptance among physicians and nurses at the examined German hospital [24]. Apart from providing clinical services, the fundamental purpose of hospital pharmacy is to efficiently and safely supply medicines. Since the cost of medicines ranges from 5 to 12 % of total hospital expenditures in developed countries, appropriate drug selection and procurement is essential in the rationalization of therapy, for which pharmacists are responsible [25]. Additionally, pharmacists must ensure the adequate distribution, storage, safety and quality of all medicines at the hospital. At present, 40 % of US hospitals operate on a decentralized medication use-system and 58 % of hospitals plan to use it in the future [26]. Data highlights that in comparison to previous years, there is an observed growth in adapting decentralized models [27, 28]. In contrast, only 6.5 % of hospitals in Europe use a decentralized distribution model, with 70 % utilizing a centralized system. However Europe is reporting similar tendencies as the US in converting to the decentralized model of practice [29, 30]. In conjunction with distribution and procurement procedures, medicine production and compounding is another valuable service performed by the hospital pharmacy. The production of sterile and non-sterile products in Europe is performed by 44 and 67.5 % of hospital pharmacies respectively. However, the compounding of products has seen a considerable decrease in recent years, dropping from 71 and 92.5 %, for sterile and non-sterile products respectively from 2000 [30]. Similarly to other countries, Polish hospital pharmacists frequently perform professional activities to ensure the safe and efficient use of drugs. It is a requirement that these pharmacy services are performed in accordance with Polish law (Pharmaceutical Law and Pharmaceutical Chambers’ Act) and each hospital’s own rules and regulations. The services provided by hospital pharmacy specifically pertain to the use of pharmacotherapy, and involve drug supply, compounding, clinical activities, patient safety, administrative duties, education as well as scientific research. A preliminary study conducted at Polish teaching hospitals demonstrated that all of the Polish pharmacists surveyed were solely responsible for the ordering and dispensing of medicines. A significant number of pharmacists were also actively involved in the compounding of medicines, collaborating in drug management processes at the hospital as well as participating in clinical trials. However, it is reported that patient oriented clinical activities at teaching hospitals were rarely performed with 94 % of pharmacists failing to participate in hospital medical rounds, and 44 % claiming to have never worked in the capacity of a clinical pharmacist [31].

Aim of the study

The aim of this research was to explore the clinical role of the hospital pharmacist and the associated clinical and conventional pharmacy services performed within the hospital setting. The study seeks to further investigate the level of collaboration between pharmacists and other medical staff and to identify areas of potential service improvement in order to understand the necessary future changes that need to be introduced to Polish general hospital practice.

Ethical approval

The pharmacists are not the direct subjects of this study, as we have only examined their opinions on current hospital pharmacy practice. The responses to the survey were anonymous and all respondents agreed to participate in the study by completing and returning a written questionnaire.

Method

A cross sectional study was carried out to collect survey data from a selected population of hospital pharmacists. The research was performed on a national scale; the heads of each pharmacy department employed at every general hospital (teaching and non-teaching) in Poland were recruited to participate in this research. The total number of participants was 273. They were chosen from the widely accessible web database of Health Care Institutions (accessed 2013). The questionnaire was developed based on legislation regulating pharmacist services and hospital pharmacy practice, literature and the researchers own experience. The survey was anonymous. It was initially piloted with just the Polish teaching hospitals and corrected following the feedback [31]. The questionnaire consisted of both multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions (the questionnaire is available as a supplementary material). The multiple-choice group made up the majority of questions in the survey, and enabled the collection of reliable and uniform data and the further application of statistical methods. The questionnaire along with a letter of invitation, (which included information about the survey and a request for participation in this research), was distributed by Polish Post to predetermined hospitals. The respondents, as representatives of all professional pharmacy staff employed at their respective hospital, were asked to fill-in the questionnaire and return it in the enclosed envelope by post or by fax or email. The survey was conducted in 2013.

Subsequent to receiving the results, the Chi square test and Fisher’s exact test (for small groups) as well as descriptive statistics were applied to the data. The Chi square test was applied to test whether the variables (population of the city in which the hospital is located or the number of professionals employed at the pharmacy) are associated with the performance frequency of particular pharmaceutical services. Additionally, we have used this test to examine the relationship between the age of pharmacists and the willingness to introduce any changes into the hospital pharmacy system. Furthermore, we tested if the size of the hospital had any influence on the provision of pharmaceutical care, and whether the level of pharmacist experience had any impact on collaborative practice with other medical staff. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and show the basic characteristics of the population. All statistical analyses were calculated with the use of STATISTICA Version 10 software (StatSoft, Inc., 2010).

Results

166 out of 273 hospitals took part in this survey (response rate 60.8 %). Most of the respondents were employed by large hospitals, characterized by facilities containing more than 100 beds. Out of the 166 hospitals that were included in the study, a total number of 833 full-time equivalent (FTE) professionals were found to be employed in their respective pharmacies; with an average of 5 ± 4.94 FTE per pharmacy (median = 4, the range extended from 1 to 39 FTE per pharmacy) (Tables 1, 2).
Table 1

Background characteristics of the surveyed hospitals

 

n = 166

%

Number of beds

≥10 ≤ 30

1

1

>30 ≤ 60

2

1

>60 ≤ 100

8

5

>100

154

93

No response

1

1

 

Average per pharmacy

The number of full-time equivalent (FTE) professionals employed in hospital pharmacies

Total

833.4

100

5

PhD, pharmacist

9

1

0.05

Master of pharmacy

372.9

45

2.2

Pharmacy technician

451.5

54

2.7

Table 2

Background characteristics of the heads of hospital pharmacies

 

n = 166

%

Age

>30 years ≤ 40 years

34

20

>40 years ≤ 50 years

45

27

>50 years ≤ 60 years

61

37

>60 years

26

16

Gender

Female

137

83

Male

28

17

No response

1

1

Education

PhD, pharmacist

5

3

Master of pharmacy

160

96

No response

1

1

Specialization

Clinical pharmacy

6

4

Hospital pharmacy

41

25

Community pharmacy

111

67

Other

8

5

During the course (not completed)

17

10

Clinical pharmacy

5

3

Hospital pharmacy

7

4

Community pharmacy

3

2

Lack of specialization

26

16

Length of service to the hospital pharmacy

<1 year

2

1

≥1 year ≤ 3 years

10

6

>3 years ≤ 10 years

42

25

>10 years

112

67

Direct supervisor

Hospital director

75

45

Vice director

87

52

Other

4

2

Table 3 details the types of pharmaceutical services performed by pharmacists and highlights the differences in service according to the size of the cities in which the hospitals are located (number of inhabitants/population) and the FTE of professional staff in the pharmacies.
Table 3

Types of pharmaceutical services performed at hospital pharmacies in context of the population of the cities in which the hospitals are located and the number of hospital pharmacy staff

 

Service

Service provided

Number of pharmacies in context of the population of the city in which the hospital is located

Number of pharmacies in context of the full-time equivalent (FTE) professionals

<50,000 (n = 91)

>50,000 (n = 72)

≤3 (n = 76)

>3 (n = 88)

1.

Dispensing of drugs and medical devices

166 (100 %)

91

72

76

88

2.

Procurement of drugs and medical devices from warehouses

160 (96 %)

88

69

73

85

3.

Co-participation in the management of drugs at the hospital

159 (96 %)

86

70

73

84

4.

Giving information about action and indication of drugs and medical devices

153 (92 %)

81

69

69

82

5.

Compounding

144 (87 %)

77

64

57

86

6.

Co-participation in the rationalization of therapy

117 (70 %)

64

50

50

65

7.

Co-participation in adverse drug reaction monitoring

110 (66 %)

52

55

46

63

8.

Co-participation in clinical trials at the hospital

60 (36 %)

15

43

11

49

9.

Preparing drugs, including cytotoxics in daily doses

33 (20 %)

9

23

4

29

10.

Preparing total parenteral nutrition

20 (12 %)

6

14

4

16

11.

Preparing solutions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

4 (2 %)

0

4

0

4

12.

Preparing solutions for enteral nutrition

2 (1 %)

0

2

0

2

13.

Preparing iv solutions

2 (1 %)

1

1

1

1

Italic numbers describe the statistically significant differences within variables in each of the two groups (p < 0.05)

The concept of pharmaceutical care was incorporated into Polish legislation in 2008 and is defined as a documented practice in which a pharmacist together with the patient, physician and other healthcare professionals ensures the appropriate use of pharmacotherapy in order to achieve positive clinical outcomes that increase the patients quality of life. As such, this service, as defined by the aforementioned law, was performed by only 17 out of 166 hospital pharmacies (10 %). The provision of this relatively new service is observed more often at smaller hospitals (5 settings out of 11) than in bigger settings (12 out of 15) (p = 0.00008). The respondents listed two main reasons for the poor rates of involvement in pharmaceutical care, including: lack of time due to an insufficient number of pharmacy staff (32, 19 %) and lack of perceived need for this service from a physicians’ perspective (22, 13 %). All of the surveyed pharmacists were found to carry out their work within hospital dispensaries. Only a small number of pharmacists additionally performed services on hospital wards and in drug units (15, 2 % respectively). At 162 general hospitals (98 %), the pharmacist was found to be a member of a Drug and Therapeutics Committee and a further 22 pharmacists declared to be the president or vice president of the committee.

Pharmacists were most often found to collaborate professionally with the head nurse (151, 91 %), the hospital director (120, 72 %) and the head of the ward (115, 69 %). A smaller number of pharmacists claimed to work in partnership with on–call physicians (39, 23 %) and other staff (medical director, administrative staff, microbiologist, physician, and clinical pharmacologist), (32, 19 %). The main topics of pharmacist consultations with these staff members are presented in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1

The topics that are discussed during hospital pharmacist consultations

Pharmacists with a period of service greater than 10 years within the hospital reported more often that they collaborated with other medical staff than less experienced workers (p < 0.005), (e.g. 106 out of 112 pharmacists with work experience longer than 10 years collaborate with a head nurse, whereas 45 out of 53 less experienced workers collaborate with a head nurse). Clinical pharmacologists were found to play a minor role at Polish general hospitals, with only 6 out of 166 (4 %) facilities employing this type of specialist, and only 3 respondents collaborating with clinical pharmacologists. In terms of the clinical services provided, only 11 out of 166 pharmacists (7 %) reported to having direct contact with patients. According to respondents, these interactions occur during the dispensing of medicines in special drug programs, during chemotherapy as well as during outpatient counseling following specialist medical consultations. Patient counseling by pharmacists occurred more commonly within hospitals located in bigger cities (9 out of 71), than at facilities with smaller populations (2 out of 91), (p = 0.009, Fisher’s exact test). 154 (93 %) of the surveyed Polish hospital pharmacists do not participate in multidisciplinary ward rounds. Only 7 (4 %) pharmacists admitted to taking part in ward rounds, with 2 respondents participating on a regular basis and 5 occasionally. Despite this finding, 54 (33 %) heads of pharmacy reported that they would like to change the situation and become involved in ward rounds. However 100 (60 %) pharmacists were not interested in undertaking this activity. 108 (65 %) respondents subjectively believed that pharmacists employed within the hospital pharmacy were not clinical pharmacists at all and only 3 pharmacists (2 %) were certain that they fulfilled their services as a clinical pharmacist. Other participants claimed that their clinical role was rather negligible.

The final section of the survey considers proposals for change from the respondent’s perspective, which should be introduced into the hospital pharmacy system to improve pharmaceutical services. According to 73 (44 %) pharmacists, changes to the current system are necessary and 67 (40 %) respondents determined that only minor alterations ought to be made. Alternatively, 22 (13 %) participants believe that there is no need for any amendments to current hospital pharmacy practice. Younger pharmacists (<50 years of age) are more interested in introducing changes (45 out 78) than older pharmacists (28 out 74), (p = 0.005). As Fig. 2 shows, more precise legal regulations of the hospital pharmacy system, increased levels of staff within pharmacies as well as salary increases were commonly identified by the majority of respondents as important measures to implement to improve practice. Pharmacists also listed a number of other changes perceived as being essential in order to advance current practice. These included: (1) the development of modern and advanced hospital pharmacy equipment, e.g. systems unit dose, (2) implementing changes to pharmacist tertiary education, i.e. the emphasis of the study curriculum should be shifted from chemical structures to more clinical issues, (3) providing extra postgraduate education options for career progression, as well as the (4) employment of staff holding specialist qualifications and undertaking further education (clinical pharmacists, pharmacologists).
Fig. 2

Changes that may improve hospital pharmacy system according to the pharmacists

Discussion

To our knowledge, this is the first time a nationwide study of this nature has been conducted in our country. A key reason for undertaking this study was to understand the necessary future changes needed in Polish hospital pharmacy that will lead to the increase of delivering quality pharmaceutical services as well as optimizing patient outcomes. The presented study was performed on a large scale—a complete sample of objectives participated in this research—the heads of hospital pharmacies employed in each general hospital in the whole of Poland were invited to participate. Therefore, the findings collected from 60 % of all general hospitals present a description of the current status of pharmaceutical service performance within hospitals in our country. Furthermore, in comparison to other similar studies utilizing questionnaires, the observed proportion of returned surveys is satisfactory [26, 32, 33].

Firstly, a significant number of the investigated hospitals are large clinical settings that in total, employ more than eight hundred specialized workers, including: doctors of pharmacy, pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, whose activities are described in this study. In regards to the pharmaceutical services provided by pharmacists, the supply of medicines for inpatients was provided by the majority of the pharmacies investigated. This responsibility may be considered as being one of the elemental tasks of a pharmacist’s work within the hospital. Additionally, a number of hospital pharmacies were involved in drug production and compounding (144/160, 87 %). It is assumed that the calculated figure encompassed both sterile and non-sterile products. A 2010 study conducted by EAHP highlighted that in Poland, the production of non-sterile drug formulations for inpatients was performed at 85.7 % of pharmacies whereas sterile production was less common [30]. Thus the obtained result is comparable with the mentioned survey. In comparison to Europe, where the average production level of non-sterile medicines is 65.8 % and decreasing, the Polish level of compounding is high [30]. Furthermore, the advanced services as e.g. co-participation in clinical trials, preparing total parenteral nutrition as well as the preparation of drugs, including cytotoxics, in daily doses are more often performed at hospitals located in big cities than in their counterparts located in smaller cities. Additionally, it was seen that the performance of these services was more common at pharmacies employing a larger number of professional staff.

In general, the results of the study indicate that clinical practice in Polish hospital pharmacies is not highly developed. With reference to patient-oriented activities, only 10 % of pharmacists admitted to carrying out pharmaceutical care services, with 15 % stating that they worked on the hospital wards. Only 4 % of respondents indicated that they take part in hospital ward rounds, with two pharmacists out of the entire study population claiming to participate in rounds on a regular basis. Direct contact with patients was initiated by a small minority of participants, and three pharmacists out of 166 regarded themselves as being clinical pharmacists. Pharmacists were found to collaborate most often with the head nurse or the hospital director, which indicates that these consultations may involve administrative or organizational issues instead of clinical ones. In light of these findings the following question arises: why are clinical services not considered to be a priority in Polish general hospitals as is observed in other countries [4]? This problem is complex and requires a comprehensive approach. Firstly, the majority of pharmacists are not sufficiently equipped or prepared to offer clinical services. Whilst the current Polish curriculum of pharmacy degrees prepares graduates for work within both hospital and community pharmacies, the majority of young pharmacists will gain employment and perform pharmacy services within the latter setting. Therefore, pharmacy courses are more focused on the preparation of graduates for work within community pharmacies, with training involving for example, classes held at virtual training pharmacies, where students learn how to cope with patients in real community pharmacies [34]. Furthermore, during the 6th year of study, 960 h (6 months) of practice are required to be performed at a community pharmacy, where students learn how to dispense prescription and non-prescription drugs, counsel patients, perform administrative tasks and prepare drugs. According to the law, in some cases students may have to perform a portion of this practice (not more than 3 months) within hospital pharmacy settings. However, it is not mandatory, and most candidates do not have chance to gain such experience at a hospital pharmacy. On the other hand, article 44 of the EU Directive 2005/36/EC deals that the six month period of training may be undertaken in “a pharmacy that is open to the public or in a hospital” [35]. In addition to the students being unable to experience hospital pharmacy practice, as the study indicates, most of the pharmacists who actually work within hospital pharmacies do not have a clinical specialization. Another issue is that some pharmacists are not willing to engage in clinical activities i.e. they do not want to take part in a hospital ward rounds and are not interested in changing the current situation. Unquestionably, clinical services should be carried out in direct contact with both patients and medical staff [36, 37]. The data highlighted that the conditions for collaboration between pharmacists and other medical staff within Polish settings are not favorable, as only a small number of pharmacists perform pharmaceutical services on hospital wards. Lack of time, associated with a shortage of pharmacy staff, overwhelming levels of duties and a perceived lack of need for pharmaceutical services were pointed out by hospital managers as the reasons for poor engagement in clinical activities. One positive aspect, evidenced in the results, emphasizes that Polish pharmacists work together with other medical staff to improve the delivery of health care, through active participation in Drug and Therapeutic Committees, which are also established in other countries [38, 39]. A survey by Tan et al. [38] indicated that senior medical staff and hospital pharmacists comprise the core of these committees. Additionally, in some cases, Polish pharmacists are presidents or vice-presidents of this group. These pharmacist attitudes indicate their interest and engagement in rational drug usage and hospital drug policy.

Finally, the study collected data regarding the respondents’ perspectives on future changes in hospital pharmacy. It is encouraging, that the majority of hospital managers’, particularly younger representatives, believe that the Polish hospital pharmacy system requires remodeling. In the opinion of 44 % of respondents, these changes should be extensive. Most of the hospital managers indicated that changes in legislation, (that should be implemented into hospital pharmacy law), may improve the performance of pharmaceutical services. Furthermore, they detailed that an increase in staffing levels within the pharmacy, (which was also mentioned as a condition), may increase the provision of quality pharmaceutical care. This opinion may result from that fact that pharmacists currently feel that they are being overwhelmed by duties that include administrative work and documentation, which are responsibilities that are not directly associated with clinical pharmacotherapy. It is worth mentioning, that pharmacists are also implicated in the economic aspects of medicine usage, and there is a significant amount of evidence that suggests pharmacist-initiated interventions have a positive influence on decreasing therapy costs [40, 41, 42].

Study limitation

The results of the survey should be discussed in the context of some limitations. Firstly, the questionnaire was not administered orally, but was sent by post. The respondents could have potentially misunderstood some questions, and did not have a chance to clarify them with the researcher. Next, the questionnaire was not detailed and occupied one page A4, therefore some questions were not extensively examined. However, the questionnaire was intentionally designed to be short in format to increase the willingness and participation of respondents to complete and return it and obtain a satisfactory response rate.

Conclusion

In conclusion, these findings provide a preview into the current state of clinical and traditional Polish hospital pharmacy. In general, hospital pharmacy is more developed in bigger cities and within pharmacies employing a larger number of pharmacists. In comparison to other countries, clinical services in Polish settings should be more commonly performed. However, some single examples of patient oriented activities in hospital pharmacy have been observed. A large number of Polish pharmacists are involved in activities directly associated with drug management including compounding, supply of medicines or participation in Drug and Therapeutic Committees. There are a variety of adjustments that have been proposed which may improve Polish hospital pharmacy. The most important were changes in law related to hospital pharmacy practice and increased financing.

Further research focusing on the opinions of other healthcare providers (physicians, nurses) on the quality of pharmaceutical services is required to provide a comprehensive insight into the current state of Polish hospital pharmacy practice. This, in turn, improves understanding on the necessary changes that should be introduced to hospital pharmacy practice.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge all heads of hospital pharmacies who participate in this study.

Funding

None.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11096_2015_234_MOESM1_ESM.docx (57 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 57 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    The European Statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2014;21:256–58.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Campbell G, Auyeung V, McRobbie G. Clinical pharmacy services in a London hospital, have they changed? Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35:688–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    What is Clinical Pharmacy. http://www.escpweb.org/cms/Clinical_pharmacy. Accessed 30 Sept 2015.
  4. 4.
    Frontini R, Miharija-Gala T, Sykora J. Survey. EAHP survey 2010 on hospital pharmacy in Europe: parts 4 and 5. Clinical services and patient safety. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2013;20:69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horn E, Jacobi J. The critical care clinical pharmacist: evolution of an essential team member. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(3 Suppl):46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kane SL, Weber RJ, Dasta JF. The impact of critical care pharmacists on enhancing patient outcomes. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(5):691–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gillespie U, Alassaad A, Henrohn D, Garmo H, Hammarlund-Udenaes M, Toss H, et al. A comprehensive pharmacist intervention to reduce morbidity in patients 80 years or older: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(9):894–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shah S, Dowell J, Greene S. Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services in a hematology/oncology outpatient setting. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40(9):1527–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cabello-Muriel A, Gascón-Cánovas JJ, Urbieta-Sanz E, Iniesta-Navalón C. Effectiveness of pharmacist intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014;36(5):896–903.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hassali MA, Nazir SU, Saleem F, Masood I. Literature review: pharmacists’ interventions to improve control and management in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Altern Ther Health Med. 2015;21(1):28–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krupicka MI, Bratton SL, Sonnenthal K, Goldstein B. Impact of a pediatric clinical pharmacist in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(4):919–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al-Jazairi AS, Al-Agil AA, Asiri YA, Al-Kholi TA, Akhras NS, Horanieh BK. The impact of clinical pharmacist in a cardiac-surgery intensive care unit. Saudi Med J. 2008;29(2):277–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kwan Y, Fernandes OA, Nagge JJ, Wong GG, Huh JH, Hurn DA, et al. Pharmacist medication assessments in a surgical preadmission clinic. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(10):1034–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gattis WA, Hasselblad V, Whellan DJ, O’Connor CM. Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical pharmacist to the heart failure management team: results of the Pharmacist in Heart Failure Assessment Recommendation and Monitoring (PHARM) Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(16):1939–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lucas C, Glare PA, Sykes JV. Contribution of a liaison clinical pharmacist to an inpatient palliative care unit. Palliat Med. 1997;11(3):209–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rothschild JM, Churchill W, Erickson A, Munz K, Schuur JD, Salzberg CA, et al. Medication errors recovered by emergency department pharmacists. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;55(6):513–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang JK, Herzog NS, Kaushal R, Park C, Mochizuki C, Weingarten SR. Prevention of pediatric medication errors by hospital pharmacists and the potential benefit of computerized physician order entry. Pediatrics. 2007;119(1):e77–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vasileff HM, Whitten LE, Pink JA, Goldsworthy SJ, Angley MT. The effect on medication errors of pharmacists charting medication in an emergency department. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31(3):373–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gheewala PA, Peterson GM, Curtain CM, Nishtala PS, Hannan PJ, Castelino RL. Impact of the pharmacist medication review services on drug-related problems and potentially inappropriate prescribing of renally cleared medications in residents of aged care facilities. Drugs Aging. 2014;31(11):825–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Williams SD, Phipps DL, Ashcroft DM. Understanding the attitudes of hospital pharmacists to reporting medication incidents: a qualitative study. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2013;9(1):80–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pai AB, Boyd A, Depczynski J, Chavez IM, Khan N, Manley H. Reduced drug use and hospitalization rates in patients undergoing hemodialysis who received pharmaceutical care: a 2-year, randomized, controlled study. Pharmacotherapy. 2009;29(12):1433–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phansalkar S, Hoffman JM, Hurdle JF, Patel VL. Understanding pharmacist decision making for adverse drug event (ADE) detection. J Eval Clin Pract. 2009;15(2):266–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Green CF, Mottram DR, Rowe PH, Pirmohamed M. Attitudes and knowledge of hospital pharmacists to adverse drug reaction reporting. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;51(1):81–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gerdemann A, Griese N, Schulz M. Pharmacy interns on the ward—a pilot study. Pharm World Sci. 2007;29:34–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ombaka E. Current status of medicines procurement. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009;66(5 Suppl 3):20–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: dispensing and administration–2011. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012;69(9):768–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: dispensing and administration—2008. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;66(10):926–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: dispensing and administration—2005. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63(4):327–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    EAHP’s 2005 survey of hospital pharmacy practice in Europe. http://www.eahp.eu/publications/survey/eahps-2005-survey-hospital-pharmacy-practice-europe. Accessed 20 May 2015.
  30. 30.
    Frontini R, Miharija-Gala T, Sykora J. EAHP, Survey 2010 on hospital pharmacy in Europe: part 3. Production and quality assurance. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2012;19:510–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pawłowska I, Kocić I. Rational use of medicines in the hospitals of Poland: role of the pharmacists. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2014;21:372–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frontini R, Miharija-Gala T, Sykora J. EAHP, Survey 2010 on hospital pharmacy in Europe: Part 1. General frame and staffing. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2012;19:385–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Scheckelhoff DJ. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: prescribing and transcribing—2013. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2014;71(11):924–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Merks P, Sawicka A, Kozłowska-Wojciechowska M. Rola apteki szkoleniowej WUM w edukacji przyszłych pokoleń farmaceutów. Farm Pol. 2014;70(2):84–8.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Directive 2005/36/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gillespie U, Mörlin C, Hammarlund-Udenaes M, Hedström M. Perceived value of ward-based pharmacists from the perspective of physicians and nurses. Int J Clin Pharm. 2012;34(1):127–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fertleman M, Barnett N, Patel T. Improving medication management for patients: the effect of a pharmacist on post-admission ward rounds. Qual Saf Health Care. 2005;14(3):207–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tan EL, Day RO, Brien JA. Perspectives on drug and therapeutics committee policy implementation. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2005;1(4):526–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fijn R, Brouwers JR, Knaap RJ, De Jong-Van Den Berg LT. Drug and Therapeutics (D & T) committees in Dutch hospitals: a nation-wide survey of structure, activities, and drug selection procedures. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;48(2):239–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chisholm-Burns M, Graff Zivin J, Lee J, Spivey C, Slack M, Herrier R, et al. Economic effects of pharmacists on health outcomes in the United States: a systematic review. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010;67:1624–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weant K, Armitstead J, Ladha A, Sasaki-Adams D, Hadar E, Ewend M. Cost effectiveness of a clinical pharmacist on a neurosurgical team. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:946–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    von Gunten V, Reymond J, Beney J. Clinical and economic outcomes of pharmaceutical services related to antibiotic use: a literature review. Pharm World Sci. 2007;29:146–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iga Pawłowska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leszek Pawłowski
    • 2
  • Ivan Kocić
    • 1
  • Natalia Krzyżaniak
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyMedical University of GdańskGdańskPoland
  2. 2.Department of Palliative MedicineMedical University of GdańskGdańskPoland
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School of HealthUniversity of Technology SydneyBroadwayAustralia

Personalised recommendations