Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 292–295 | Cite as

Pharmacists as immunizers: a survey of community pharmacists’ willingness to administer adult immunizations

  • Nicholas Edwards
  • Erin Gorman Corsten
  • Mathew Kiberd
  • Susan Bowles
  • Jennifer Isenor
  • Kathryn Slayter
  • Shelly McNeilEmail author
Short Research Report

Abstract

Background Adult immunization rates worldwide fall below desired targets. Pharmacists are highly accessible healthcare providers with the potential to increase immunization rates among adults by administering vaccines in their practice setting. Objective To determine the attitudes of community-based Canadian pharmacists with respect to expanding their scope of practice to include administration of immunizations. Method An internet-based survey was emailed to community pharmacists across Canada. The survey was piloted through focus groups for qualitative feedback, tested for content validity, and test–retest reliability prior to dissemination. Results There were 495 responses to the survey. The majority (88 %) agreed that pharmacists as immunizers would increase public access, improve rates (84 %), and be acceptable to the public (72 %). However, only 68 % agreed that pharmacists should be permitted to immunize. The majority of respondents (90 %) agreed that certification in vaccine administration should be required for pharmacists to administer vaccines. Pharmacists identified education, reimbursement, and negative interactions with other providers as barriers to pharmacists administering vaccines. Conclusion Canadian pharmacists are willing to expand their scope of practice to include immunization. However, implementation requires professional development and certification in vaccine administration.

Keywords

Canada Immunisation Pharmaceutical services Pharmacist Vaccination 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Donna MacKinnon-Cameron of the Canadian Center for Vaccinology for her statistical support, the Canadian Pharmacists Association for assistance with survey administration, and Tania Alia for her assistance with manuscript preparation and review.

Funding

This work was supported by the Capital Health Research Fund.

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to this work.

Supplementary material

11096_2015_73_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (360 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 360 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. 2010 National Vaccine Plan. [Internet]. United States of America: Department of Health & Human Services; 2010 [cited 2014 Nov 16]. http://www.hhs.gov/nvpo/vacc_plan.
  2. 2.
    Skelton JB. American pharmacists association, academy of managed care pharmacy. Pharmacist-provided immunization compensation and recognition: white paper summarizing APhA/AMCP stakeholder meeting. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;2011(51):704–12.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. What are some of the myths and facts about vaccination? [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2013 April [cited 2014 Nov 16]. http://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/index.html.
  4. 4.
    Kamal KM, Madhavan SS, Amonkar MM. Determinants of adult influenza and pneumonia immunization rates. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;2003(43):403–11.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shen AK, Bridges CB, Tan L. The first national adult immunization summit 2012: implementing change through action. Vaccine. 2013;31:279–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grabenstein JD, Guess HA, Hartzema AG, Koch GG, Konrad TR. Attitudinal factors among adult prescription recipients associated with choice of where to be vaccinated. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55:279–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steyer TE, Ragucci KR, Pearson WS, Mainous AG. The role of pharmacists in the delivery of influenza vaccinations. Vaccine. 2004;22:1001–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ashby-Hughes B, Nickerson N. Provider endorsement: the strongest cue in prompting high-risk adults to receive influenza and pneumococcal immunizations. Clin Excell Nurse Pract. 1999;3:97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Higginbotham S, Stewart A, Pfalzgraf A. Impact of a pharmacist immunizer on adult immunization rates. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;2012(52):367–71.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Loughlin SM, Mortazavi A, Garey KW, Rice GK, Birtcher KK. Pharmacist-managed vaccination program increased influenza vaccination rates in cardiovascular patients enrolled in a secondary prevention lipid clinic. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:729–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ernst ME, Chalstrom CV, Currie JD, Sorofman B. Implementation of a community pharmacy-based influenza vaccination program. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 1997;NS37:570–80.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Amburgh JA, Waite NM, Hobson EH, Migden H. Improved influenza vaccination rates in a rural population as a result of a pharmacist-managed immunization campaign. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21:1115–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Canadian Pharmacists Association. Pharmacists’ Expanded Scope of Practice. [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2014 [updated 2014 Nov; cited 2014 Nov 16]. http://www.pharmacists.ca/index.cfm/pharmacy-in-canada/scope-of-practice-canada.
  14. 14.
    Marra F, Kaczorowski J, Gastonguay L, Marra CA, Lynd LD, Kendall P. Pharmacy-based Immunization in Rural Communities Strategy (PhICS): a community cluster-randomized trial. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2014;147:33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sauvageau C, Dubé E, Bradet R, Mondor M, Lavoie F, Moisan J. Immunization services offered in Quebec (Canada) pharmacies. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013;9:1943–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Immunization Competencies Education Program (ICEP). [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists; 2014 [cited 2014 Nov 16]. http://www.cshp.ca/programs/onlineeducation/icepCourse_e.asp.
  17. 17.
    Isenor J, Tobin C, Bowles S, Slayter K. Immunization training: preparing pharmacists for an expanded scope of practice. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2010;21:228.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hurley LP, Wortley P, Allison MA, O’Leary S, Daley MF, Babbel C, et al. Seasonal influenza vaccination in adults: practice and attitudes about collaborative delivery with community vaccinators. Vaccine. 2011;29:8649–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pace AC, Flowers SK, Hastings JK. Arkansas community pharmacists’ opinions on providing immunizations. J Pharm Pract. 2010;23:496–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kummer GL, Foushee LL. Description of the characteristics of pharmacist-based immunization services in North Carolina: results of a pharmacist survey. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;2008(48):744–51.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bain KT, Cullison MA. Deficiencies in immunization education and training in pharmacy schools: a call to action. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73(6):110.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas Edwards
    • 1
  • Erin Gorman Corsten
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mathew Kiberd
    • 4
  • Susan Bowles
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Jennifer Isenor
    • 1
    • 6
  • Kathryn Slayter
    • 2
    • 3
    • 6
  • Shelly McNeil
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.College of PharmacyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  3. 3.Department of MedicineQueen Elizabeth II Health Sciences CentreHalifaxCanada
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesia, Pain Management, and Perioperative MedicineQueen Elizabeth II Health Sciences CentreHalifaxCanada
  5. 5.Department of PharmacyQueen Elizabeth II Health Sciences CentreHalifaxCanada
  6. 6.Canadian Center for VaccinologyIWK Health CentreHalifaxCanada
  7. 7.Canadian Center for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre and Capital HealthDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations