International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 1087–1094 | Cite as

Investigation on barriers to pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: a structural equation model

  • Gholamhossein MehralianEmail author
  • Maryam Rangchian
  • Athar Javadi
  • Farzad Peiravian
Research Article


Objective The concept of pharmaceutical care (PhC) has been popular in pharmacy during past decades. However, in some countries, including Iran, it does not seem to mature. Aim of the study To identify and prioritize barriers to the provision of PhC in Iranian community pharmacies, based on the perceptions of community pharmacists in Tehran. Method Between August and November 2013, a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using an anonymous questionnaire asking the pharmacists’ perceptions on the implementation of PhC. Of the 2000 invited community pharmacists, 505 pharmacists responded. A descriptive analysis, was conducted, and the data were also analyzed through structural equation modeling. Main outcome measure Priorities of barriers to the implementation of PhC in Iran. Results Five major dimensions included in the survey instrument were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. According to the model developed based on pharmacists’ opinions, lack of pharmacists’ skills and lack of appropriate regulation and environment are the two most important barriers of the provision of PhC, and the least important is lack of resources. Conclusion The results show that the main barriers to PhC in Iran are the lack of skills and of appropriate regulation and environment. These main barriers are different from those mentioned in studies conducted in other countries.


Barrier Community pharmacy Iran Pharmaceutical care 



No financial support was obtained for this study.

Conflicts of interests

Authors report no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gholamhossein Mehralian
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maryam Rangchian
    • 1
  • Athar Javadi
    • 2
  • Farzad Peiravian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharma Management, School of PharmacyShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.School of PharmacyAzad UniversityTehranIran

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