The role of Sudanese community pharmacists in patients’ self-care
- 229 Downloads
Objectives To describe the current and potential roles of Sudanese community pharmacists in responding to symptoms (RTS) and chronic diseases management (CDM) and identify perceived barriers. Settings Community pharmacies in Khartoum State. Method A structured, self-administered, piloted questionnaire was conducted of pharmacists in charge of 274, randomly selected, community pharmacies. Close ended questions and a 5-point Likert-type scale were used to measure responses. Main outcome measure Respondents’ demographics, their current activities, attitude and involvement in RTS and CDM and potential barriers. Response rate was 67 %. The majority of respondents (>90 %) reported that they are involved in RTS activities but have negative views regarding practice standards. They lack specific lists of minor conditions and their treatment (87.4 %), recorded counseling procedure (84.7 %), and referral forms (85.8 %). Almost all community pharmacists see an important role for them in CDM (4.54 ± 0.74, 95.3 %) and accept team work with other health care providers (4.46 ± 0.74, 87.5 %). Lack of proper knowledge and training, time, space, patients’ acceptance and official recognition of pharmacists’ new role, were some of the identified barriers. Conclusion Sudanese community pharmacists provide RTS and CDM services; however, clinical knowledge and training and well defined national practice standards needs were identified. The current product-focused activities need to be refined to include more patient-focused services. For Improved patients’ self-care services, a number of obstacles identified by surveyed pharmacists need to resolved. This requires collaboration of different parties including academics, governmental bodies and professional organizations.
KeywordsChronic disease management Community pharmacy Responding to symptoms Self-care Self-medication Sudan
The authors are grateful to participating pharmacists and community pharmacy owners. Our appreciations are extended to the pharmacists who helped in distributing and collecting the questionnaires. We also thank the faculty of the pharmaceutics department for their constructive discussions and opinions.
Conflicts of interest
None to declare.
- 1.World Health Organization. The role of the pharmacist in self-care and self-medication (Internet). 1998 pp. 1–17. www.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip32e/whozip32e.pdf.
- 2.World Health Organization. Guidelines for the regulatory assessment of medicinal products for use in self-medication. 2000 (cited 2013 Sep 7). http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Guidelines+for+the+regulatory+assessment+of+medicinal+products+for+use+in+self-medication#0.
- 3.World Health Organization. Good pharmacy practice (GPP) in community and hospital pharmacy settings. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1996 (Internet) (cited 2013 Sep 6);1–10. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Good+pharmacy+practice+(GPP)+in+community+and+hospital+pharmacy+settings#0.
- 4.International Pharmaceutical Federation. Statement of principle self-care including self-medication—The professional role of the pharmacist (Internet). 1996 pp. 1–5. http://www.fip.org/www/uploads/database_file.php?id=204&table_id=.
- 5.Pharmaceutical Service Negotiating committee EN8. NHS community pharmacy contractual framework enhanced service—minor ailment service (Internet). 2005 pp. 9–11. http://psnc.org.uk/services-commissioning/locally-commissioned-services/en8-minor-ailments-service/.
- 6.Eng H, McCormick W. Assessment of the Florida Pharmacist Self-Care Consultant Law using patient profile and prescription audit methods. Ann Pharmacother (Internet). 1990 (cited 2013 Sep 7);24(10):931–5. http://www.theannals.com/content/24/10/931.short.
- 7.Bodenheimer T, Wagner EH, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model, part 2. JAMA (Internet). 2002;288(15):1909–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12377092.
- 8.George PP, Molina JA, Cheah J, Chan SC, Lim BP. The evolving role of the community pharmacist in chronic disease management—a literature review. Ann Acad Med Singap (Internet). 2010;39(11):861–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21165527.
- 9.Grindrod KA, Rosenthal M, Marra CA, Bougher D, Wilgosh C, Tsuyuki RT. Pharmacists’ perspectives on providing chronic disease management services in the community-part 1: current practice environment. Can Pharm J (Internet). 2009 (cited 2013 Sep 6);142:234–9. https://www.cfpnet.ca/bank/files/GrindrodSUPPORTCDMpart1CPJ2009.pdf.
- 11.Berg J, Dodd S, Dodd S. The role of a community pharmacist in diabetes education. J Endocrinol Metab Diabetes S Afr (JEMDSA) (Internet). 2010 (cited 2012 Jan 4);14(3):148–50. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jemdsa/article/view/50361.
- 12.McAuley JW, Miller MA, Klatte E, Shneker BF. Patients with epilepsy’s perception on community pharmacist’s current and potential role in their care. Epilepsy Behav: E&B (Internet). Elsevier Inc.; 2009 (cited 2011 Dec 14);14(1):141–5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18984065.
- 13.Scheerder G, Coster ID, Audenhove CV. Community pharmacists’ attitude toward depression: a pilot study. Research in social and administrative pharmacy (Internet). Elsevier; 2009 (cited 2013 Jun 9);5(3):242–52. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1551741108000946.
- 15.Omolase C, Adeleke O. Self medication amongst general outpatients in a Nigerian community hospital. Ann Ib Postgrad Med (Internet). 2007 (cited 2013 May 27);5(2):64–7. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/aipm/article/view/64032.
- 16.Osemene K, Lamikanra A. A study of the prevalence of self-medication practice among university students in Southwestern Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res. 2012;11(4):683–9.Google Scholar
- 19.Donkor ES, Tetteh-Quarcoo PB, Nartey P, Agyeman IO. Self-medication practices with antibiotics among tertiary level students in Accra, Ghana: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health (Internet). 2012 Oct (cited 2013 May 27);9(10):3519–29. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3509469&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
- 20.Baig S. Self medication practices. Prof Med J. 2012;19(4):513–21.Google Scholar
- 21.Ibrahim A, Scott J. Community pharmacists in Khartoum State, Sudan: their current roles and perspectives on pharmaceutical care implementation. Int J Clin Pharm (Internet). 2012 Dec 20 (cited 2013 Mar 2); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23254941.
- 23.Republic of Sudan, Ministry of Health Annual Report. 2006.Google Scholar
- 24.Federal Ministry of Health. Quarter of a century pharmacy strategic plan (2005–2029) (Internet). 2005;1–62. http://www.fmoh.gov.sd/St_Plan/pharm.pdf.
- 25.Lwanga S, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies: a practical manual. World Health Organization (Internet). 1991 (cited 2012 July 8);25. http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19912082864.html.
- 26.Naing L, Winn T, Rusli B. Sample size calculator for prevalence studies (Internet). 2006. http://www.kck.usm.my/ppsg/stats_resources.htm.
- 27.Cronbach L, Glesser G, Nanda H, Rajaratnam N. The dependability of behavioral measurements: theory of generalizability for scores and profiles. 1st ed. New York: Wiley, ISBN 978047188506; 1972.Google Scholar
- 29.Jain S. Concept of self medication: a review. Int J Pharm Biol Arch (Internet). 2011 (cited 2013 Sep 11);2(3):831–6. http://ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/274.
- 30.Erdogan O, Erdogan M. Community pharmacists’ perception of their clinical pharmacy service function, a study from Turkey. Farmacia (Internet). 2012 (cited 2013 Nov 22);60(5):749–58. http://akademikpersonel.kocaeli.edu.tr/nerdogan/sci/nerdogan12.10.2012_17.56.22sci.pdf.
- 31.Bhimaray K, Mahadevamma L, Yoganand R, Begum SS. The key role of community pharmacists in health care system; an overview. Univers J Pharm. 2012;01(01):46–51.Google Scholar
- 32.Wong JYY, Chan FWK, You JHS, Wong ELY, Chung VCH, Griffiths SM, et al. Patient self-management and the role of pharmacists: developing a consensus-based policy framework. Hong Kong Med J (Internet). 2011;17(3 Suppl 3):16–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21673354.
- 33.Kebodeaux C, Grise W. Chain community pharmacists’ willingness, attitudes, and barriers in providing self-care medication and supplement recommendations. Self Care (Internet). 2012 (cited 2013 Nov 22);3(March):21–32. http://www.selfcarejournal.com/view.abstract.php?id=10070.
- 34.Rosenthal MM, Breault RR, Austin Z. Pharmacists’ self-perception of their professional role: insights into community pharmacy culture. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;2011(51):363–7.Google Scholar
- 35.Wong FYY, Chan FWK, You JHS, Wong ELY, Yeoh EK. Patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong: a focus group study from different healthcare professionals’ perspectives. BMC Health Serv Res (Internet). BioMed Central Ltd; 2011 Jan (cited 2011 Dec 14);11(1):121. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3127980&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
- 36.You JH, Wong FY, Chan FW, Wong EL, Yeoh E-K. Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong. BMC Clin Pharmacol (Internet). BioMed Central Ltd; 2011 Jan (cited 2013 May 27);11(1):19. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3252282&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
- 37.Hassali M, Subish P, Shafie A. Perceptions and barriers towards provision of health promotion activities among community pharmacists in the State of Penang, Malaysia. J Clin Diagn Res (Internet). 2009 (cited 2012 May 19);3:1562–8. http://www.jcdr.net/articles/pdf/490/421.pdf.
- 38.Federal Ministry of Health. Sudan pharmaceutical country profile. 2010. http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/coordination/sudan_pharmaceuticalprofile_december2010.pdf.