International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 92–100 | Cite as

Treatment related problems for outpatients with chronic diseases in Jordan: the value of home medication reviews

  • Iman A. BashetiEmail author
  • Eyad A. Qunaibi
  • Nailya R. Bulatova
  • Sundos Samara
  • Salah AbuRuz
Research Article


Background Research conducted in Jordan has shown that suboptimal use of medications by outpatients along with the suboptimal role played by community pharmacists is currently a big dilemma highlighting the need for the Home Medication Review (HMR) service in the country. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and types of treatment related problems (TRPs) for outpatients with chronic diseases. Setting Patient interview was conducted at the patients’ community pharmacy initially, then at their home to collect required data. Methods 167 patients with chronic conditions (mean age 58.9 ± 13.54, 53 % males) were recruited. Data collected by the graduate pharmacists to conduct a HMR included patient’s demographics, income, laboratory data, medical history, medication record, and adherence. A HMR was conducted for each patient by the researchers (experienced clinical pharmacists) to identify the patients’ TRPs based on published literature. A focus group interview was conducted to elicit information regarding the feasibility of the HMR process and acceptability of the patient to the service. Main outcome measure Prevalence and nature of identified TRPs, associated diseases and drugs, and patients’ acceptability to the HMR service. Results The mean number of disease conditions per patient was 4.1 ± 1.7, and the mean number of medications taken by each patient was 8.1 ± 2.7. HMR results showed a mean number of TRPs per patient of 7.4 ± 2.8. TRPs prevalence: 34.7 % of patients were found to have unnecessary drug therapy; 68.3 % had untreated conditions, and 74.9 % had ineffective/incomplete drug therapy; 50.3 % had inappropriate dosage regimen; 10.2 % were found to have actual adverse drug effects. A significant correlation between the number of TRPs and the number of disease states the patient had (r = 0.311, p = 0.003; Pearson correlation) and the number of drugs the patient was taking (r = 0.443, p < 0.001) was found. Patients accepted the HMR service well including the home visiting part. Conclusion TRPs in Jordanian outpatients with chronic diseases visiting community pharmacies are of concern and this signifies the integral role of pharmacists to identify these TRPs and hence provide the HMR service in the country.


Community pharmacy Chronic conditions Jordan Medication management review Treatment related problems 



The authors would like to thank all patients who participated in this study and acknowledge all pharmacy students who participated in data collection. We acknowledge Dr Betty Chaar for her review of the manuscript, and the research assistant, pharmacist Hadeel Hdaib.


This study was funded by the University of Applied Sciences, Amman, Jordan.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iman A. Basheti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eyad A. Qunaibi
    • 1
  • Nailya R. Bulatova
    • 2
  • Sundos Samara
    • 3
  • Salah AbuRuz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyApplied Sciences UniversityAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyAl Isra UniversityAmmanJordan

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