International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 439–444 | Cite as

Management of hypertension and factors affecting its control in Jordanian renal transplant recipients

  • Nailya BulatovaEmail author
  • Al-Motassem Yousef
  • Hisham Qusa
  • Ghada Al Khayat
  • Wadad Ailabouni
  • Ayman Wahbeh
  • Muhammad Al-Ulemat
Research Article


Background Hypertension affects 70–90 % of all kidney transplant recipients. It is associated with poor graft survival and is a contributing factor to the increased cardiovascular mortality. The reasons for the insufficient blood pressure control in transplanted patients have not been thoroughly investigated. Objective To evaluate the extent of blood pressure control in Jordanian hypertensive renal transplant recipients and to assess factors associated with such control. Setting Three outpatient renal transplant clinics in Amman. Method A cross-sectional observational study including 181 patients. We have considered blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg as controlled hypertension. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine clinical factors associated with achievement of blood pressure control. Main outcome measures Proportion of patients who achieved hypertension control and clinical factors associated with good blood pressure control. Results Mean systolic blood pressure was 128.6 ± 16.3 mm Hg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 82.8 ± 11.5 mm Hg. Blood pressure control was achieved only in 58 % of patients. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensives were calcium channel blockers (58 %) followed by beta-blockers (44 %). In bivariate analysis, female gender (p = 0.017) and creatinine clearance (p = 0.002) were positively associated, while number of antihypertensive medications was inversely associated (p = 0.04) with achievement of blood pressure control. After including these factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis, only creatinine clearance remained independently associated with hypertension control (odds ratio, OR 1.04; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.06; p = 0.003). Conclusion Blood pressure control among renal transplant recipients in Jordan was found to be inadequate. The only factor found to be independently associated with adequate blood pressure control was creatinine clearance.


Blood pressure control Creatinine clearance Hypertension Jordan Kidney fuction Renal transplant patients Tacrolimus 



We are thankful to the renal transplant patients who participated in the study and to the staff of Nephrology Departments of Jordan University Hospital, Al-Basheer Hospital and King Hussein Medical Center for their assistance in data collection.


This work was conducted during sabbatical leave sponsored by the Deanship of Academic Research, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nailya Bulatova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Al-Motassem Yousef
    • 1
  • Hisham Qusa
    • 2
  • Ghada Al Khayat
    • 3
  • Wadad Ailabouni
    • 4
  • Ayman Wahbeh
    • 5
  • Muhammad Al-Ulemat
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Department of Basic Pharmaceutical SciencesCollege of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at MonroeMonroeUSA
  3. 3.TechKnowledge JordanAmmanJordan
  4. 4.Marshfield CenterMarshfieldUSA
  5. 5.Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of MedicineThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  6. 6.Royal Medical ServicesAmmanJordan

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