International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 120–126 | Cite as

Application of ATC/DDD methodology to evaluate perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis

  • Serife AkalinEmail author
  • Selda Sayin Kutlu
  • Bayram Cirak
  • Saadettin Yilmaz Eskiçorapcı
  • Dilek Bagdatli
  • Semih Akkaya
Research Article


Objective To evaluate quality of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) and to calculate the cost per procedure in a Turkish university hospital. Setting A 352-bed teaching hospital in Denizli, Turkey. Method An prospective audit was performed between July and October 2010. All clean, clean-contaminated and contaminated elective surgical procedures in ten surgical wards were recorded. Antimicrobial use was calculated per procedure using the ATC-DDD system. The appropriateness of antibiotic use for each procedure was evaluated according to international guidelines on PAP. In addition, the cost per procedure was calculated. Results Overall, in 577 of the 625 (92.3%) of the studied procedures, PAP was used. PAP was indicated in 12.5% of the group where it was not used, and not indicated in 7.1% of the group where it was used. Unnecessarily prolonged antimicrobial prophylaxis was observed in 56.9% of the procedures, mean duration was 2.6 ± 2.7 days. The most frequently used antimicrobials were cefazolin (117.9 DDD/100-operation) and sulbactam/ampicillin (102.2 DDD/100-operation). The timing of the starting dose was appropriate in 545 procedures (94.5%). In the group that received PAP, only 80 (13.7%) of the procedures were found to be fully appropriate and correct. The density of antimicrobial use per operation was 2.8 DDD. The mean cost of the use of prophylactic antimicrobials €18.6 per procedure. Conclusion The density of antimicrobial use in PAP was found to be very high in our hospital. Antibiotic overuse extended into the postoperative period.


Appropriateness Audit ATC-DDD index Cost Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis Turkey 



We are grateful to the Perioperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Study Group of the participating hospital for retrieving the surgical prophylaxis data. Members of the Perioperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Study Group: Ozer Oztekin, Ugur Koltuksuz, Ali Vefa Ozcan, Funda Tumkaya, Gokhan Yuncu, Koray Tekin, Ilkay Sitti, Gungor Bingolo, Orhan Aydin, Veysel Baskan, Umit Cabus, Firat Durna, Bulent Kamil Akyol, Yasin Ekinci and Seda Arzuman.


No financial support was provided for this study.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests in any product or service mentioned in this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serife Akalin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Selda Sayin Kutlu
    • 1
  • Bayram Cirak
    • 2
  • Saadettin Yilmaz Eskiçorapcı
    • 3
  • Dilek Bagdatli
    • 4
  • Semih Akkaya
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Kinikli KampusuPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of NeurosurgeryPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Medicine, Department of UrologyPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Plastics SurgeryPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Medicine, Department of OrthopedicsPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey

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