International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 949–957

Validation of a patient satisfaction questionnaire for services provided in Spanish community pharmacies

  • Susy Y. Olave Quispe
  • Maria Luz Traverso
  • Valeria Palchik
  • Encarnación García Bermúdez
  • Carmen La Casa García
  • Ma Concepción Pérez Guerrero
  • Ma José Martín Calero
Research Article

Abstract

Background The concept of Pharmaceutical Care (PC) is being gradually developed, and it’s impact in health care should be measured using a quality tool. Objective The aim of this study was to describe and assess the psychometric properties of a patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ) for PC services in community pharmacies in Seville, Spain. It was based on a previous questionnaire in Spanish. Methods The face and content validity were assessed using the items of a validated questionnaire developed by Traverso et al. and adapted to the Seville pharmacy patient population. The PSQ was designed for use in the community pharmacy setting by a panel of seven pharmacists with expertise in both PC and questionnaire design. The result, was a ‘draft PSQ’ which comprised of 27 multidimensional items, with responses recorded on a five-point ‘Likert-type scale’. The validity and reliability of the ‘final PSQ’ was carried out using a cross-sectional and analytical study. Eighteen community pharmacies agreed to participate in the study. The draft PSQ was a self completion questionnaire distributed to patients by pharmacists following selection criteria. The survey response rate was assessed. The validity was determined by establishing the distribution of the PSQ’s items and dimensions of the PSQ through factor analysis, and the reliability was evaluated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α). Results Two-hundred and twenty-three patients took part in the study.The factor analysis with varimax rotation established a ‘final PSQ’ with 24 items over two dimensions: Medication Therapy Management (MTM) and General satisfaction with the pharmacy/staff and services (GSP/SS) which extracted 63.5% of the variance. The internal consistency by α was 0.964 for the PSQ and 0.959 and 0.916 for the two dimensions, respectively. The median (mode) score for GSP/SS was 5.0 (5.0) and 4.0 (5.0) for MTM. The Wilcoxon-test indicated that the difference between these scores was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our results suggest that the PSQ is a two dimensional instrument with psychometric properties able to assess patient satisfaction in community pharmacies. However, its validity and reliability need to be further confirmed in different PC settings and its sensitivity to measure changes in satisfaction over time also needs to be established.

Keywords

Cultural adaptation Community pharmacy Patient satisfaction Spanish Validation 

References

  1. 1.
    Gaminde II. La interacción en el sistema sanitario: médicos y pacientes. Invertir para la salud: prioridades en salud pública: Informe SESPAS. [The interaction in the health care system: physicians and patients. Investing for health. Public health priorities: SESPAS report.] Valencia: Escuela Valenciana de Estudios para la Salud; 2002. p. 567–80. ISBN 84-482-3282-8.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wensing M, Grol R. What can patients do to improve health care? Health Expect. 1998;1:37–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(3):533–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ministerio de Salud y Consumo. Consenso sobre Atención Farmacéutica. [Consensus of pharmaceutical care]. 2002. http://www.msps.es/profesionales/farmacia/consenso/consenso.htm#indice. Accessed 15 Feb 2011.
  5. 5.
    Martin-Calero MJ, Machuca M, Murillo MD, Cansino J, Gastelurrutia MA, Faus MJ. Structural process and implementation programs of pharmaceutical care in different countries. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(31):3969–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Machuca M. Seguimiento farmacoterapéutico. [Pharmacotherapy follow-up]. España: Ediciones Mayo; 2008.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Donabedian A. Evaluating the quality of medical care. Milbank Mem Fund Q. 1966;44(3):166–206. doi:10.2307/3348969.
  8. 8.
    Mira JJ, Aranaz J. La satisfacción del patiente como una medida del resultado de la atención sanitaria [Patient satisfaction as an outcome measure in health care]. Med Clin (Barc). 2000;114(Suppl 3):26–33.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barrasa JI, Aibar C. Revisión sistemática de los estudios de sat-isfacción realizados en España en el período 1986–2001 [Systematic review of satisfaction studies performed in Spain between 1986–2001]. Rev Calidad Asistencial. 2003;18(07):580–90.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sitzia J. How valid and reliable are patient satisfaction data? An analysis of 195 studies. Int J Qual Health Care. 1999;11(4):319–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Volume CI, Farris KB, Kassam R, Cox CE, Cave A. Pharmaceutical care research and education project: patient outcomes. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001;41(3):411–20.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grogan S, Conner M, Norman P, Willits D, Porter I. Validation of a questionnaire measuring patient satisfaction with general practitioner services. Qual Health Care. 2000;9(4):210–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Aspectos básicos de gestión de calidad en el ámbito sanitario. In: Informe anual del Sistema Nacional de Salud 2005 [Main aspect of quality management for health care field. In: Annual report of the national health system 2005]. 2005. http://www.msps.es/organizacion/sns/informeAnualSNS/docs/general2005/Cap2AspeBasicGestCalidadAmbitoSanitario.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2011.
  14. 14.
    Ware JE, Snyder MK. Dimensions of patient attitudes regarding doctors and medical care services. Med Care. 1975;13(8):669–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Naik Panvelkar P, Saini B, Armour C. Measurement of patient satisfaction with community pharmacy services: a review. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31(5):525–37. doi:10.1007/s11096-009-9311-2.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Armando PD, Martinez Perez SR, Marti Pallares M, Sola Uthurry NH, Faus Dader MJ. Development and validation of a Spanish language patient satisfaction questionnaire with drug dispensing. Pharm World Sci. 2008;30(2):169–74. doi:10.1007/s11096-007-9158-3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    García-Delgado A, Machuca M, Murillo M, De la Matta M, Martín M. Percepción de la labor asistencial del farmacéutico comunitario por los pacientes incluidos en un programa de segu-imiento farmacoterapéutico [Perception of the clinical work of the community pharmacist by the patients included in a pharmaceutical care program]. Seguim Farmacoter. 2003;1(2):38–42.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gastelurrutia MA, de San Vicente OG, Erauncetamurgil O, Odriozola I, Fernandez-Llimos F. Customers’ expectations and satisfaction with a pharmacy not providing advanced cognitiveservices. Pharm World Sci. 2006;28(6):374–6. doi:10.1007/s11096-006-9049-z.
  19. 19.
    Streiner DL, Norman GR. Health measurement scales. New York: Oxford University Press; 2002. ISBN 0192626701.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Badia X, Carne X. Evaluation of quality of life in clinical trials. Med Clin (Barc). 1998;110(14):550–6.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Traverso ML, Salamano M, Botta C, Colautti M, Palchik V, Perez B. Questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care in Spanish language. Int J Qual Health Care. 2007;19(4):217–24. doi:10.1093/intqhc/mzm014.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Larson LN, Rovers JP, MacKeigan LD. Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care: update of a validated instrument. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2002;42(1):44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Miller FG, Emanuel EJ. Quality-improvement research and informed consent. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(8):765–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mira JJ, Lorenzo S, Perez-Jover V, Rodriguez-Marin J. ‘Not being satisfied’’ is not equivalent to ‘‘being unsatisfied’. Rev Clin Esp. 2006;206(4):209–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susy Y. Olave Quispe
    • 1
  • Maria Luz Traverso
    • 2
  • Valeria Palchik
    • 2
  • Encarnación García Bermúdez
    • 3
  • Carmen La Casa García
    • 1
  • Ma Concepción Pérez Guerrero
    • 1
  • Ma José Martín Calero
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Research Group CTS-528 Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical CareUniversity of SevilleSevilleSpain
  2. 2.Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical SciencesNational University of RosarioRosarioArgentina
  3. 3.Pharmacists Council of SevilleSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations