Community pharmacy compounding–impact on professional status
- 468 Downloads
Aim of the Review Extemporaneous compounding has been a core function for pharmacists and was the basis of pharmacy’s claim to professional status. The re-emergence of compounding as a specialised practice warrants investigation regarding the influence of this practice on pharmacy’s professional status. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of extemporaneous compounding to the professional status of pharmacists in community practice. Method A search of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, IPA, ISI WEB OF KNOWLEDGE, PROQUEST SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNALS, JSTOR and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS databases to identify relevant original research articles, reviews or commentaries. Results Compounding was an important part of pharmacy’s claim to professional status. The expansion of the pharmaceutical industry and decline in demand for compounded medications led to a view that pharmacy suffered a loss of professional status. In recent decades patient centred services have been introduced as a reprofessionalisation strategy. Evidence suggests that compounding, as a specialty practice based on a patient centred approach, is increasingly provided in Australia and the United States. Conclusion Compounding has emerged as a specialised area of pharmacy practice in Australia and the United States, and when practiced as a patient centred activity may be a strategy for reprofessionalisation. The extension of compounding beyond mere supply and distribution of a pharmaceutical product to become a platform for development of collaborative professional relationships may also lead to enhanced professional status of pharmacists.
KeywordsCompounding Extemporaneous Pharmaceutical care Profession Professionalisation Specialisation
Conflicts of interest
- 2.United States Pharmacopeial Convention. < 795 > Pharmacy Compounding. The United States Pharmacopeia 33 and National Formulary 28. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc; 2010.Google Scholar
- 3.Slezak M. The roots of modern pharmacy practice. Am Drug. 1996;213:32–64.Google Scholar
- 5.Savage DA. The professions in theory and history: the case of pharmacy. Bus Econ Hist. 1994;23:129–59.Google Scholar
- 9.Hammer DP, Berger BA, Beardsley RS, Easton MR. Student professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ. 2003;67:Article 96. Available at http://www.ajpe.org/aj6703/aj670396/aj670396.pdf.
- 10.Hammer DP. Professional attitudes and behaviors: the “A’s and B’s” of professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ. 2000;64:455–64.Google Scholar
- 11.Dingwall R, Wilson E. Is pharmacy really an ‘incomplete’ profession. Perspect Socl Prob. 1995;7:111–28.Google Scholar
- 13.Carr-Saunders AM, Wilson PA. The professions. 1st ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1933. ISBN.Google Scholar
- 14.Caldwell I. What does it mean to be a member of a profession in 21st century Britain? Pharm J. 2007;278:461–2.Google Scholar
- 15.American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism. White paper on pharmacy student professionalism. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000;40:96–100.Google Scholar
- 17.Freidson E. Professionalism reborn—theory, prophecy and policy. Cambridge: Polity Press; 1994. ISBN 0745614469.Google Scholar
- 18.Freidson E. Profession of medicine: a study of the sociology of applied knowledge. New York: Harper & Row; 1970. ISBN 006042205X.Google Scholar
- 20.Gilbert AL. What will it take for pharmacy practice to change? J Pharm Pract Res. 2009;39:4–5.Google Scholar
- 21.Ruston A. Achieving re-professionalisation: factors that influence the adoption of an ‘extended role’ by community pharmacists. A national survey. J Soc Adm Pharm. 2001;18:103–10.Google Scholar
- 24.National Coordinating Committee on Therapeutic Goods. A discussion paper on regulation of extemporaneously prepared medicines in non-hospital pharmacies. Canberra 2008 [Cited 2008 14 April]; Available from: www.tga.gov.au/meds/extempcomp2.htm.
- 25.Committee on health education labor and pensions. Federal and State role in pharmacy compounding and reconstitution: Exploring the right mix to protect patients. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office; 2003.Google Scholar
- 27.Harding G, Taylor K. Responding to change: the case of community pharmacy in Great Britain. Sociol Health Illn. 1997;19:547–60.Google Scholar
- 31.Clouse EH. Is extemporaneous compounding still an indication of pharmacist’s professionalism? Tennessee Pharma. 1986;22:14–5.Google Scholar
- 34.Knapp DA, Knapp DE. An appraisal of the contemporary practice of pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ. 1968;32:747–58.Google Scholar
- 35.Turner BS. Medical power and social knowledge. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications; 1995. ISBN 0803975988.Google Scholar
- 37.Young TJ, Pritchard KW. Sociological analysis of pharmacy as a quasi-profession. Free Inq Creat Sociol. 1985;13:63–6.Google Scholar
- 45.Rossing C, Hansen E, Krass I. Barriers and facilitators in pharmaceutical care: perceptions and experiences among Danish community pharmacists. J Soc Admin Pharm. 2001;19:55–64.Google Scholar
- 48.Doucette W, Kreling D, Schommer J, Gaither C, Mott D, Pedersen C. Evaluation of community pharmacy service mix: evidence from the 2004 national pharmacist workforce study. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2006; 46:348–55.Google Scholar
- 49.National Community Pharmacists Association. Resilient community pharmacies rely on patient services to weather economic downturn, competition, According to 2009 NCPA Digest. 2009 [Cited 2010 4 February]; Available from: http://www.ncpanet.org/index.php/news-releases/2009-news-releases/199-resilient-community-pharmacies-rely-on-patient-services-to-weather-economic-downturn-competition-according-to-2009-ncpa-digest-.
- 51.Federal and State role in pharmacy compounding and reconstitution: Exploring the right mix to protect patients: Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate (October 23, 2003).Google Scholar
- 52.McPherson TB, Fontane PE. Patient-centered care in the community-based compounding practice setting J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010;50:37-44.Google Scholar
- 53.Pappas A. Extemporaneous dispensing: opinions of Victorian community pharmacists. Aust J Hosp Pharm. 1999;29:196–201.Google Scholar
- 54.Greenberg AR, Barnett CW. Metro Atlanta Board specialists attitudes toward compounding pharmacy. Int J Pharm Compd. 2004;8:65–72.Google Scholar
- 56.Humphrys P, O’Brien GE. The relationship between skill utilization, professional orientation and job satisfaction for pharmacists. J Occup Psychol. 1986;59:315–26.Google Scholar
- 58.Letendre W, Shepherd M, Brown C. Comparison of job satisfaction for compounders and non compounders. Int J Pharm Compd. 1998;2:455–62.Google Scholar
- 59.United States Pharmacopeial Convention. < 1075 > Good compounding practices The United States Pharmacopeia 28 and National Formulary 23. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc; 2004.Google Scholar
- 60.McPherson T, Fontane P, Jackson K, Martin K, Berry T, Chereson R, et al. Prevalence of compounding in independent community pharmacy practice. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2006;46:568-73.Google Scholar
- 62.Dunphy D, Palmer I, Benrimoj SI, Roberts A. Final report - the shape of our future, change management and community pharmacy project. 2005 [Cited 2005 April 11]; Available from: http://www.guild.org.au/uploadedfiles/Research_and_Development_Grants_Program/Projects/2003-530_fr1.pdf.
- 63.Giam JA, McLachlan AJ, Krass I. Specialised compounding - practices and opinions of Australian community pharmacists. J Pharm Pract Res. 2007;37:260–4.Google Scholar
- 64.Berbatis C, Sunderland VB, Mills C, Bulsara M. National pharmacy database project. Perth: School of Pharmacy, Curtin University of Technology of Western Australia; 2003 [Cited 2005 June 17]; Available from: http://www.guild.org.au/uploadedfiles/Research_and_Development_Grants_Program/Projects/2001-056_fr.pdf.
- 65.Giam J, McLachlan A, Krass I. Specialized compounding in community pharmacies: Organizational perspective. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010;50:354-61.Google Scholar