International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 252–259 | Cite as

Design and test of preference for a new prescription medication label

  • Amir H. Zargarzadeh
  • Anandi V. LawEmail author
Research Article


Objective This study measured preference for newly designed prescription labels in comparison with two existing labels from the perspective of patients, pharmacists and physicians, based on three parameters: content, convenience and cosmetic appearance. Setting Participants were interviewed at pharmacies (patients) and at professional meetings (physicians and pharmacists) regarding their preference for the labels. Method Two new labels (A and B) were designed using Publisher® Software version 2007 based on literature and results from our previous study. New features focusing on content, convenience and cosmetic appearance (3Cs) included a time table for medication administration, indication of medication and warnings, on a redesigned label. These labels were initially tested on a small sample and then revised. A survey instrument was developed to compare currently used labels and modified labels A and B, on the 3Cs. Main outcome measure The preference of three groups of stakeholders (patients, pharmacists and physicians) were measured for newly designed labels in comparison with two existing labels. Results Complete data obtained with 444 patients, 115 pharmacists and 69 physicians indicated that the median age range of participants was between 51 and 64 years. The patient and physician samples consisted of a higher percentage of women. Pharmacists working in chain pharmacies and family practitioners comprised majority of our sample in professional groups. Mean years of experience in pharmacy and physician groups was 18.2 and 26.8 years, respectively. Most patients (94.4%) in the sample had at least high school education. Majority of patients (82.8%) preferred new labels over existing ones and 55.2% preferred label B on all three parameters. Close to two thirds of pharmacists (76.4%) and physicians (75.3%) preferred new labels with 55.3 and 57.9% preferring label B, respectively. Participants cited all the added modifications as reasons for their preference. Conclusion New prescription labels were favored over existing labels by all stakeholders, for content, convenience and cosmetic appearance. The results may help in making labels more user-friendly and addressing problem areas in labels.


Label preference Label design Label layout United States Prescription drug label 



We would like to thank our students Meeta Goel, Deborah Kheradyar and Nirav Rathod for their contribution to design of and data collection of this research.


This study was conducted using restricted research funds provided by the institution.

Conflicts of interest

We hereby declare that no conflict of interest exists with any aspect of this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of PharmacyIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of PharmacyWestern University of Health SciencesPomonaUSA

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