Advertisement

Pharmacy World & Science

, 32:22 | Cite as

Interventions performed by New Zealand community pharmacists while dispensing prescription medications

  • Rhiannon BraundEmail author
  • Heidi M. Furlan
  • Katherine George
  • Maria M.A. Havell
  • Jenna L. Murphy
  • Melissa K. West
Short Research Report

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the number and type of interventions performed by New Zealand community pharmacists when dispensing new prescriptions. Method: All community pharmacies in Dunedin, New Zealand (29) were asked to use a tally system to record the types of interventions performed, the time taken and the number of prescription items processed per day. Data was collected for one full week for 20 pharmacies. Results: In total 24,059 prescription items were dispensed by the 20 pharmacies over one week. There were 1,551 separate interventions recorded with a recorded time of 1,684 min. These interventions occurred at a rate of 64 interventions per 1,000 prescription items. Of recorded interventions, bureaucratic and generic substitution problems accounted for 81%. These combined interventions occurred at a rate of 52 per 1,000 prescription items and totalled 50% of the time spent on prescription interventions. Whilst clinical interventions were recorded at a rate of 13 per 1,000 items, they accounted for the remaining 50% of time spent. Conclusion: Half of the time spent by community pharmacists in Dunedin, New Zealand on prescription interventions consists of correcting bureaucratic and legal issues, limiting the time pharmacists can spend on clinical services.

Keywords

Community pharmacy Dispensing New Zealand Prescribing errors Prescription interventions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thank you to all the pharmacies that participated in this study.

Funding

None.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflict of interests to declare.

Supplementary material

11096_2009_9343_MOESM1_ESM.doc (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 29 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Bell HM, McElnay JC, Hughes CM. A self-reported work sampling study in community pharmacy practice. Pharm World Sci. 1999;21(5):210–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dunlop JA, Shaw JP. Community pharmacists’ perspectives on pharmaceutical care implementation in New Zealand. Pharm World Sci. 2002;24(6):224–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Emmerton L, Becket G, Gillbanks L. The application of electronic work sampling technology in New Zealand community pharmacy. J Soc Adm Pharm. 1998;15(3):191–7.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rutter PM. Pharmacist work patterns: are they affected by staffing levels and prescription numbers? Int J Pharm Pract 2002;10:R49.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rupp MT, DeYoung M, Schondelmeyer SW. Prescribing problems and pharmacist interventions in community practice. Med Care. 1992;30(10):926–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Westein MP, Herings RM, Leufkens HG. Determinants of pharmacists’ interventions linked to prescription processing. Pharm World Sci. 2001;23(3):98–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caleo S, Benrimoj S, Collins D, Lauchlan R, Stewart K. Clinical evaluation of community pharmacists’ interventions. Int J Pharm Pract. 1996;4(4):221–7.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hawksworth GM, Corlett AJ, Wright DJ, Chrystyn H. Clinical pharmacy interventions by community pharmacists during the dispensing process. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;47(6):695–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knudsen P, Herborg H, Mortensen AR, Knudsen M, Hellebek A. Preventing medication errors in community pharmacy: root-cause analysis of transcription errors. Qual Saf Health Care. 2007;16(4):285–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Singh H, Mani S, Espadas D, Petersen N, Franklin V, Petersen LA. Prescription errors and outcomes related to inconsistent information transmitted through computerized order entry: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(10):982–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhiannon Braund
    • 1
    Email author
  • Heidi M. Furlan
    • 1
  • Katherine George
    • 1
  • Maria M.A. Havell
    • 1
  • Jenna L. Murphy
    • 1
  • Melissa K. West
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PharmacyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations