Pharmacy World & Science

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 351–361 | Cite as

The quality of private pharmacy services in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review

  • Felicity SmithEmail author
Review Article


Aim of the review In low and middle income countries private pharmacies are considered a valuable resource for health advice and medicines in many communities. However the quality of the service they provide has often been questioned and is unclear. This paper reviews the evidence regarding the quality of professional services from private pharmacies in low and middle-income countries. Method A literature search (computer and hand searches) was undertaken to identify all studies which included an assessment of the quality of some aspect of private pharmacy services in low and middle income countries. Results 30 studies were identified which spanned all regions in the developing world. These included 9 which examined the scope and/or quality of a range of professional services, 14 which assessed the quality of advice provided in response to specific symptoms and 7 which investigated the supply of medicines without a prescription. A range of methods were employed, in particular, questionnaire surveys with staff and/or clients and assessment of practice using simulated client methodology. Whilst many authors identified a potential for pharmacies to contribute more effectively to primary health care, virtually all studies identified deficiencies in the quality of current professional practice. In particular authors highlighted the lack of presence of pharmacists or other trained personnel, the provision of advice for common symptoms which was not in accordance with guidelines and the inappropriate supply of medicines. Conclusion The evidence-base regarding the quality of professional services from pharmacies in low and middle income countries is limited, but indicates that standards are often deficient. If pharmacists are to contribute effectively to health care, the barriers to the provision of higher quality care and ways in which these might be overcome must be identified and examined.


Low-income countries Middle-income countries Pharmacy services Quality Systematic review 



I would like to thank Joann Hong for her assistance in the literature searching and data extraction for this review.


No external sources of funding for this work were obtained.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Practice and Policy, School of PharmacyUniversity of LondonLondonUK

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