Assessing job satisfaction and stress among pharmacists in Northern Ireland
- 779 Downloads
Objective and Setting The pharmacy profession in Northern Ireland (NI) is currently experiencing major changes in practice development. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of job satisfaction and stress in pharmacists in NI in the context of these changes. Method A questionnaire was adapted from one previously used in the United States (US). Following minor amendments and piloting, the survey was distributed by mail on two occasions (January/February 2007) to all registered community and hospital pharmacists in NI (n = 1,965). Data were entered into SPSS (version 15) and analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test and regression analysis. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results The overall response rate was 39% (n = 766). Of the potentially highest stress score of 165, overall mean scores were significantly higher for community than hospital pharmacists (P < 0.05). Both groups found interruptions, excessive workload, and inadequate staffing to be the most stressful aspects of their employment. Just over 30% (n = 178) of community pharmacists and half of all hospital pharmacists cited feeling often or frequently stressed because of imminent changes in contractual or organisational arrangements. Regression analysis indicated that sector of work (community or hospital) appeared to account for differences in self-reported stress. Conclusion Any developments in professional practice need to be considered in the context of the well-being of the health professionals who implement, and are affected by, the changes. Unless stress in pharmacy is recognised and reduced, pharmacists and patients may be at risk.
KeywordsCommunity pharmacist Hospital pharmacist Job-related stress Job satisfaction Northern Ireland
We thank all pharmacists who took time to respond to the questionnaire.
This study was funded under a studentship provided to Laura McCann from the Northern Ireland Centre for Pharmacy Learning and Development.
Conflicts of interest:
- 3.Clegg SR, Hardy C, Nord WR. Handbook of organisation studies. London: Sage; 1996.Google Scholar
- 4.Price JL. Reflections on the determinants of voluntary turnover. Int J Manage. 2001;22:600–24.Google Scholar
- 5.Marine A, Ruotsalainen J, Serra C, Verbeek J (2006) Preventing occupational stress in healthcare workers. Coch Database of System Reviews; Issue 4: Art. No.: CD002892. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002892.pub2.
- 7.Firth-Cozens J, Payne R. Stress in health professionals. Chichester: Wiley; 1999.Google Scholar
- 9.Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Stress: It’s not just patients who get stressed…Leaflet produced by the Benevolent Fund (2006).Google Scholar
- 10.Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (2006) Code of ethics and standards http://www.rpsgb.org/pdfs/coe. Accessed 11 May 2007.
- 13.Boardman H, Blenkinsopp A, Jesson J, Wilson K. A pharmacy workforce survey in the West Midlands: (4) Morale and motivation. Pharm J. 2001;267:685–90.Google Scholar
- 14.National Health Service (2007) http://www.nhsemployers.org/pay-conditions/agenda-for-change. Accessed 12 May 2007.
- 15.Fitzpatrick R. Reflecting on 2006—a year of change for hospital pharmacy. Hosp Pharm. 2006;13:386.Google Scholar
- 20.Marmot M. Status syndrome: how your social standing directly affects your health and life expectancy. London: Bloomsbury; 2004.Google Scholar
- 21.Wilkinson R. The impact of inequality: how to make sick societies healthier. New York: The New Press; 2005.Google Scholar
- 23.Penna S, Paylor I, Soothill K (1995) Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction amongst residential care workers. Social Care Research, Issue 69. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. www.jrf.org.uk/knowledge/findings/socialcare/SC69.asp. Accessed 19 Sep 2008.
- 26.British Medical Association (BMA) (2000) Work-related stress among senior doctors. http://www.bma.org.uk/ap.nsf/Content/Workrelatedstresssenior. Accessed 29 Jan 2008.
- 29.Ortmeier BG, Wolfgang AP. Career commitment, career plans, and job-related stress: a follow-up study of pharmacy students as pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 1993;57:25–8.Google Scholar
- 31.Fowler J. Survey research methods. 3rd ed. London: Sage; 2002.Google Scholar