Pharmacy World & Science

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 924–933 | Cite as

Evaluation of a training and communication-network nephrology program for community pharmacists

  • Lyne LalondeEmail author
  • Michelle Normandeau
  • Diane Lamarre
  • Anne Lord
  • Djamal Berbiche
  • Louise Corneille
  • Louis Prud’homme
  • Marie-Claude Laliberté
Research Article


Objectives To assess the feasibility and impact of implementing ProFiL program to optimize community-pharmacist management of drug-related problems among chronic kidney disease patients followed in a predialysis clinic. The program comprises a training workshop, communication-network program and consultation service. Setting Forty-two community pharmacies, 101 pharmacists, and 90 chronic kidney disease patients attending a predialysis clinic in Laval (Canada). Patients were followed-up for 6 months. Method In a six-month, pilot, open, cluster-randomized controlled trial, community pharmacies were assigned to ProFiL or the usual care. Chronic kidney disease patients of these pharmacies attending a predialysis clinic were recruited. ProFiL pharmacists attended a workshop, received patient information (diagnoses, medications, and laboratory-test results) and had access to a consultation service. Their knowledge and satisfaction were measured before and after the workshop. The mean numbers of pharmacists’ written recommendations to physicians (pharmaceutical opinions) and refusals to dispense a medication were computed. Results Of the ProFiL pharmacists, 84% attended the workshop; their knowledge increased from 52% to 88% (95% CI: 29–40%). Most ProFiL pharmacists rated workshop (95%), communication program (82%) and consultation service (59%) as “excellent” or “very good”; 82% said the program improved the quality of their follow-up. The consultation service received 21 requests. ProFiL and usual care pharmacists issued a mean of 0.50 and 0.02 opinion/patient, respectively, (95% CI of the adjusted difference: 0.28–1.01 opinion/patient). Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that ProFiL can be implemented and may help community pharmacists intervene more frequently to manage drug-related problems. However, a larger-scale study with longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the impact of the program on management of drug-related problems and its clinical relevance.


Canada Chronic kidney disease Cluster-randomized controlled trial Community pharmacy Drug-related problems Pharmaceutical care Pharmacist education 



We thank all the pharmacists, physicians, and patients involved in this study, Nathalie Caron for her excellent work and constant support and Chantal Legris for her assistance in the preparation of this article.


Dr. Lyne Lalonde is a scientist supported by the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec. Unrestricted research grants were received from the Bourse du Cercle du Doyen (Faculty of pharmacy, University of Montreal), and Pfizer Canada Inc.; unrestricted educational grants were received from Amgen Canada Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb/Sanofi-Synthelabo, Hoffmann-La Roche Limitée, LEO Pharma Inc., Merck Frosst Canada & Co, Pharmaceutical Partners of Canada Inc., Pro Doc Ltée, Sabex, and Shire BioChem Inc.

Conflicts of Interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyne Lalonde
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Michelle Normandeau
    • 4
  • Diane Lamarre
    • 1
  • Anne Lord
    • 5
  • Djamal Berbiche
    • 2
  • Louise Corneille
    • 5
  • Louis Prud’homme
    • 5
  • Marie-Claude Laliberté
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Research Team in Primary CareCentre de santé et de services sociaux de LavalLavalCanada
  3. 3.Sanofi-Aventis Endowment Chair in Ambulatory Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Montreal’s Public Health DepartmentMontrealCanada
  5. 5.Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Laval, Hôpital de la Cité-de-la-SantéLavalCanada

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