Pharmacy World and Science

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 154–158 | Cite as

Characteristics Associated with Neuropathy and/or Retinopathy in a Hospital Outpatient Diabetic Clinic

  • Mary. T. McClean
  • William John Andrews
  • James C. McElnayEmail author


Background: The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide and with it the risk of diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to characterise parameters associated with neuropathy and/or retinopathy in a hospital outpatient diabetic clinic population.

Method: A structured questionnaire addressing diabetes related factors and demography was administered to a cross-sectional sample of patients (n = 290) with type 1 and type 2 diabetes attending a hospital diabetic outpatient clinic. Additional clinical measures were obtained from patient medical files and computerised records. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify characteristics associated with the presence of complications.

Results: When controlling for other predictors, increasing age (P < 0.01), type 1 diabetes (P = 0.05), longer duration of diabetes (P < 0.01), increased serum triglyceride levels (P = 0.03), HbA1c (>8%; P = 0.03), self-reported low physical activity levels (P = 0.05) and being a smoker (P = 0.01) were positively related to retinopathy and/or neuropathy. Patients within the study population had reasonably well controlled BP and serum lipids, thus explaining the absence of these particular variables from the list of predictor parameters. Other factors including diabetes knowledge, home blood glucose monitoring, gender, body mass index, clinic attendance and occupational status were not significantly associated with retinopathy or neuropathy in the present study population.

Conclusions: Pharmacists and other health practitioners who are in a position to be involved in the care and management of patients with diabetes should raise awareness of complications, particularly amongst patients who present with the above risk factors and provide necessary counselling and advice as required.


Counselling Diabetes Microvascular complications Neuropathy Northern Ireland Retinopathy Risk factors 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary. T. McClean
    • 1
  • William John Andrews
    • 2
  • James C. McElnay
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Clinical and Practice Research Group, School of PharmacyThe Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastNorthern Ireland
  2. 2.United Hospitals Trust Co.AntrimNorthern Ireland

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