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Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 687–695 | Cite as

Using the Slug Mucosal Irritation Assay to Investigate the Tolerability of Tablet Excipients on Human Skin in the Context of the Use of a Nipple Shield Delivery System

  • Richard Kendall
  • Joke Lenoir
  • Stephen Gerrard
  • Rebekah L. Scheuerle
  • Nigel K. H. Slater
  • Catherine Tuleu
Research Paper

Abstract

Purpose

Neonates are particularly challenging to treat. A novel patented drug delivery device containing a rapidly disintegrating tablet held within a modified nipple shield (NSDS) was designed to deliver medication to infants during breastfeeding. However concerns exist around dermatological nipple tolerability with no pharmaceutical safety assessment guidance to study local tissue tolerance of the nipple and the areola. This is the first Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) study to evaluate irritancy potential of GRAS excipients commonly used to manufacture rapidly disintegrating immediate release solid oral dosage form

Methods

Zinc sulphate selected as the antidiarrheal model drug that reduces infant mortality, was blended with functional excipients at traditional levels [microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate]. Slugs were exposed to blends slurried in human breast milk to assess their stinging, itching or burning potential, using objective values such as mucus production to categorize irritation potency

Results

Presently an in vivo assay, previously validated for prediction of ocular and nasal irritation, was used as an alternative to vertebrate models to anticipate the potential maternal dermatological tolerability issues to NSDS tablet components. The excipients did not elicit irritancy. However, mild irritancy was observed when zinc sulphate was present in blends.

Conclusion

These promising good tolerability results support the continued investigation of these excipients within NSDS rapidly disintegrating tablet formulations. Topical local tolerance effects being almost entirely limited to irritation, the slug assay potentially adds to the existing preformulation toolbox, and may sit in between the in vitro and existing in vivo assays.

KEY WORDS

nipple shield delivery system pediatric skin tolerability slug mucosal irritation assay tablet excipients 

Abbreviations

API

Active pharmaceutical ingredient

BAC

Benzalkonium chloride

CP

Contact period

GRAS

Generally recognised as safe

HBM

Human breast milk

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HLTV

Human T-lymphotropic virus

MP

Mucus production

NC

Negative control

NSDS

Nipple shield delivery system

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

PC

Positive control

REC

Research ethics committee

SIB

Stinging, itching or burning

SMI

Slug mucosal irritation

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DISCLOSURES

This work was made possible through the support of the Saving Lives at Birth partners: the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Government of Norway, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges Canada, and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). Additional support was provided by the Gates Cambridge Trust.

Many thanks go to Gillian Weaver, manager of the Queen Charlotte’s and Chelsea Hospital Milk Bank (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust) for coordinating access to the HBM samples. These samples were provided by the Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust Tissue Bank. Other investigators may have received samples from these same tissues. The research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

Stephen Gerrard is an inventor of the nipple shield delivery system (US patent 8357117 B2. See http://justmilk.org).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PharmacyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of GhentGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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