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Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 33, Issue 11, pp 2704–2712 | Cite as

A Lower Temperature FDM 3D Printing for the Manufacture of Patient-Specific Immediate Release Tablets

  • Tochukwu C. Okwuosa
  • Dominika Stefaniak
  • Basel Arafat
  • Abdullah Isreb
  • Ka-Wai Wan
  • Mohamed A. Alhnan
Research Paper

Abstract

Purpose

The fabrication of ready-to-use immediate release tablets via 3D printing provides a powerful tool to on-demand individualization of dosage form. This work aims to adapt a widely used pharmaceutical grade polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), for instant on-demand production of immediate release tablets via FDM 3D printing.

Methods

Dipyridamole or theophylline loaded filaments were produced via processing a physical mixture of API (10%) and PVP in the presence of plasticizer through hot-melt extrusion (HME). Computer software was utilized to design a caplet-shaped tablet. The surface morphology of the printed tablet was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical form of the drugs and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. In vitro drug release studies for all 3D printed tablets were conducted in a USP II dissolution apparatus.

Results

Bridging 3D printing process with HME in the presence of a thermostable filler, talc, enabled the fabrication of immediate release tablets at temperatures as low as 110°C. The integrity of two model drugs was maintained following HME and FDM 3D printing. XRPD indicated that a portion of the loaded theophylline remained crystalline in the tablet. The fabricated tablets demonstrated excellent mechanical properties, acceptable in-batch variability and an immediate in vitro release pattern.

Conclusions

Combining the advantages of PVP as an impeding polymer with FDM 3D printing at low temperatures, this approach holds a potential in expanding the spectrum of drugs that could be used in FDM 3D printing for on demand manufacturing of individualised dosage forms.

KEY WORDS

fused filament fabrication HME immediate release patient-specific 

ABBREVIATIONS

API

Active pharmaceutical ingredient

CAD

Computer aided design

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

FDM

Fused deposition modelling

HME

Hot melt extrusion

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

PLA

Polylactic acid

PVA

Poly(vinyl alcohol)

PVP

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

Tg

Glass transition temperature

TGA

Thermal gravimetric analysis

Tm

Melting point

XRPD

X-ray powder diffractometry

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DISCLOSURES

The authors would like to thank UCLAN Innovation Team for their support and Mrs Rim Arafat for her help with graphics design.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tochukwu C. Okwuosa
    • 1
  • Dominika Stefaniak
    • 1
  • Basel Arafat
    • 1
  • Abdullah Isreb
    • 1
  • Ka-Wai Wan
    • 1
  • Mohamed A. Alhnan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Pharmacy and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK

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